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Nigro P.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Perrucci G.L.,University of Milan | Gowran A.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Zanobini M.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | And 3 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Although ongoing therapeutic strategies ameliorate symptoms and prolong life for patients with cardiovascular diseases, they do not solve the critical issue related to the loss of cardiac tissue. Accordingly, stem/progenitor cell therapy has emerged as a paramount approach for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this regard, c-kit+ cells have animated much interest and controversy. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent and display a noteworthy potential to differentiate into all cardiovascular lineages. However, their functional contribution to cardiomyocyte turnover is one of the centrally debated issues concerning their regenerative potential. Regardless, plentiful preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted which provide evidence for the capacity of c-kit+ cells to improve cardiac function. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive, impartial, critical description and evaluation of the literature on c-kit+ cells from bench to bedside in order to address their true potential, benefits and controversies. © 2015 Springer Basel. Source

Cianfarani F.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecolare E Cellulare | Toietta G.,Laboratory of Vascular Pathology | Di Rocco G.,Istituto Regina Elena | Di Rocco G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Regenerative Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Wound Repair and Regeneration

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are gaining increasing consideration in tissue repair therapeutic application. Recent evidence indicates that ASCs enhance skin repair in animal models of impaired wound healing. To assess the therapeutic activity of autologous vs. allogeneic ASCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, we functionally characterized diabetic ASCs and investigated their potential to promote wound healing with respect to nondiabetic ones. Adipose tissue-derived cells from streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice were analyzed either freshly isolated as stromal vascular fraction (SVF), or following a single passage of culture (ASCs). Diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferative potential and migration. Expression of surface markers was altered in diabetic SVF and cultured ASCs, with a reduction in stem cell marker-positive cells. ASCs from diabetic mice released lower amounts of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and insulin-like growth factor-1, growth factors playing important roles in skin repair. Accordingly, the supernatant of diabetic ASCs manifested reduced capability to promote keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation and migration. Therapeutic potential of diabetic SVF administered to wounds of diabetic mice was blunted as compared with cells isolated from nondiabetic mice. Our data indicate that diabetes alters ASC intrinsic properties and impairs their function, thus affecting therapeutic potential in the autologous treatment for diabetic ulcers. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society. Source

Milano G.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Raucci A.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Scopece A.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Daniele R.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography

Background An increased risk for cardiac dysfunction is reported when the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (ErbB2) antibody trastuzumab (Trz) is combined with doxorubicin (Dox) as adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with ErbB2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a novel mouse model of cardiotoxicity that recapitulates the clinical therapeutic protocols of consecutive cycles of Dox followed by Trz therapy. Methods Chronic cardiotoxicity was induced in mice by administering six intraperitoneal injections of Dox weekly over a 2-week period (n = 38; cumulative dose, 24 mg/kg), Trz alone (n = 15; cumulative dose, 10 mg/kg), Trz administered 1 week after Dox treatment (n = 35), or an equivalent volume of saline (n = 24). Results Echocardiography and pressure-volume analysis indicated that Dox administration was responsible for both left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction and dilatation, further exacerbated by subsequent Trz treatment. Trz alone induced a short down-regulation of LV ErbB2/4 expression associated with reversible LV dysfunction but did not affect receptor expression and RV performance. Dox and Trz in combination decreased the ratio of LV weight to tibia length as well as LV and RV wall thickness compared with Dox treatment. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels and myocardial oxidative stress were higher in mice treated with Dox and Trz than in those treated with Dox alone, while a similar increase of interstitial collagen I deposition was observed in both groups. Trz alone did not affect LV and RV remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest that a combined Dox and Trz regimen provokes a detrimental synergistic global cardiac injury extending to both the LV and RV chambers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Echocardiography. Source

Giampietri C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Petrungaro S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Padula F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | D'Alessio A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 4 more authors.

TNF-alpha levels in prostate cancer correlate with the extent of disease and are significantly elevated in the metastatic stage. TNF receptor superfamily controls two distinct signalling cascades, leading to opposite effects, i.e. apoptosis and survival; in prostate cancer TNFalpha-mediated signalling induces cell survival and resistance to therapy. The apoptosis of prostate epithelial cancer cells LNCaP and PC3 was investigated upon treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and the autophagy inducer rapamycin, in combination with TNFalpha. Cells were exposed to these molecules for 18, 24 and 48 h. Autophagy was assessed via LC3 Western blot analysis; propidium iodide and TUNEL stainings followed by flow cytometry or caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis. TNF-alphainduced apoptosis was potentiated by 3-methyladenine in the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells, whereas no effect was observed in the androgen-insensitive PC3 cells. Interestingly such pro-apoptosis effect in LNCaP cells was associated with reduced c-Flip levels through proteasomal degradation via increased reactive oxygen species production and p38 activation; such c-Flip reduction was reversed in the presence of either the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Conversely in PC3 but not in LNCaP cells, rapamycin stimulated TNF-alpha-dependent apoptosis; such effect was associated with reduced c-Flip promoter activity and FoxO3a activation. We conclude that TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis may be potentiated, in prostate cancer epithelial cells, through autophagy modulators. Increased sensitivity to TNF-alpha-dependent apoptosis correlates with reduced c-Flip levels which are consequent to a post-transcriptional and a transcriptional mechanism in LNCaP and PC3 cells respectively. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Buttari B.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | Profumo E.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | Segoni L.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | D'Arcangelo D.,Laboratory of Vascular Pathology | And 6 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Macrophages consist of two main subsets: the proinflammatory M1 subset and the anti-inflammatory M2 one. 7-oxo-cholesterol, the most abundant cholesterol autoxidation product within atherosclerotic plaque, is able to skew the M1/M2 balance towards a proinflammatory profile. In the present study, we explored the ability of the polyphenolic compound resveratrol to counteract the 7-oxo-cholesterol-triggered proinflammatory signaling in macrophages. Resveratrol-pretreated human monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophages were challenged with 7-oxo-cholesterol and analyzed for phenotype and endocytic ability by flow cytometry, for metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2 and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography, and for cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor secretome by a multiplex immunoassay. We also investigated the NF-B signaling pathway. In the M1 subset, resveratrol prevented the downregulation of CD16 and the upregulation of MMP-2 in response to 7-oxo-cholesterol, whereas in M2 macrophages it prevented the upregulation of CD14, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and the downregulation of endocytosis. Resveratrol prevented the upregulation of several proinflammatory and proangiogenic molecules in both subsets. We identified modulation of NF-B as a potential mechanism implicated in 7-oxo-cholesterol and resveratrol effects. Our results strengthen previous findings on the immunomodulatory ability of resveratrol and highlight its role as potential therapeutic or preventive compound, to counteract the proatherogenic oxysterol signaling within atherosclerotic plaque. © 2014 Brigitta Buttari et al. Source

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