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Ymittos Athens, Greece

Almog D.M.,The New School | Padberg Jr. F.T.,The New School | Carmel G.,Vascular Laboratory | Friedlander A.H.,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | Friedlander A.H.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2013

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world. Calcification noted on cone beam computerized tomography, frequently used to evaluate the maxillofacial structures for extent of tumor, trauma, and implant placement, may indicate atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery. Internal carotid artery stenosis is a recognized risk factor for stroke; multiple, large randomized controlled trials have demonstrated a decreased risk of stroke after repair of the stenotic artery. Recognition of calcified carotid artery plaque, on cone beam computerized tomography during the course of surgical care may offer the opportunity for stroke risk reduction. © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Source

Wang R.Y.,Pediatric Subspecialty Faculty | Wang R.Y.,University of California at Irvine | Covault K.K.,Pediatric Subspecialty Faculty | Halcrow E.M.,Vascular Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Background: The feasibility of carotid artery intima-media thickness (C-IMT), an established cardiovascular disease marker, as a cardiac risk marker in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) patients was explored. Objectives: To determine if C-IMT is abnormal in MPS versus unaffected controls, and if C-IMT correlates with coronary artery diameter in MPS. Material and methods: Measurements of C-IMT via neck ultrasound and echocardiographic parameters, including coronary artery diameters, were obtained from MPS and control patients, and compared. Results: Sixteen MPS subjects (6 MPS I, 6 MPS II, 2 MPS III, 1 MPS VI, 1 MPS VII) and sixteen age, ethnicity, and gender-matched controls were enrolled. Median MPS and control subject ages were 8.3 ± 4.5 and 8.6 ± 4.3. years, respectively (p = 0.73). Mean MPS and control C-IMTs were 0.54 ± 0.070 and 0.48 ± 0.034. mm (p = 0.0029). No differences in left main, left anterior descending, or right coronary artery diameters were seen between MPS and controls. A significant proportion of MPS subjects had mitral insufficiency (14/16; p = 0.0002), aortic insufficiency (10/16; p = 0.0021), and left ventricular dilatation (7/16, p = 0.037) versus controls. C-IMT did not correlate significantly with age, height, weight, coronary measurements, or duration of treatment. Conclusion: C-IMT in MPS patients is increased compared to matched controls, likely reflective of arterial intima-medial glycosaminoglycan accumulation. MPS subjects demonstrated a high percentage of left-sided valvular insufficiency and ventricular dilatation. Additional studies should be performed in MPS patients to determine if C-IMT correlates with arterial elasticity, biomarkers of vascular dysfunction, and higher risk of cardiovascular events. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dessein P.H.,University of Witwatersrand | Norton G.R.,University of Witwatersrand | Joffe B.I,University of Witwatersrand | Abdool-Carrim A.T.,University of Witwatersrand | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Objectives: The impact of metabolic risk factors on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from developing populations is currently unknown. We examined the relationships of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with carotid artery atherosclerosis in African women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from a developing black and developed Caucasian population. Methods: We assessed the associations of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) defined MetS and its criteria with high resolution B-mode ultrasound determined common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery plaque in multivariable regression models in 104 black and 93 Caucasian women with RA. Results: The MetS prevalence was 30.8% in black compared to 9.7% in Caucasian women with RA (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=10.11 [1.76-58.03] [p=0.009]). Population origin impacted on the relationships of metabolic risk factors with atherosclerosis. In Caucasian women, the MetS was associated with cIMT (p=0.036) and MetS triglycerides and the number of MetS criteria were each associated with both cIMT (p=0.01 and p=0.028, respectively) and plaque (p=0.049 and p=0.02, respectively); by contrast, in black women, MetS blood pressure was related to cIMT (p=0.04). Conclusion: A high overall metabolic cardiovascular risk burden as disclosed by markedly prevalent MetS in women with RA from developing groups of black African descent was not associated with atherosclerosis. This calls for systematic rigorous cardiovascular risk management irrespective of metabolic risk factor profiles in African black women with RA. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2013. Source

Solomon A.,University of Witwatersrand | Woodiwiss A.J.,University of Witwatersrand | Abdool-Carrim A.T.,University of Witwatersrand | Stevens B.A.,Vascular Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objective. Black Africans currently experience a distinctly low frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Whether this protection persists in those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown. We compared the carotid atherosclerosis burden and its relationships with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors between Africans with RA from a developing black and developed CV population. Methods. We performed high resolution B-mode ultrasonography and assessed CV risk factors in 243 patients with established RA, of whom 121 were black and 122 white. Data were analyzed in age, sex, and healthcare center-adjusted regression models. Results. The mean ± SD common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was 0.694 ± 0.097 mm in black and 0.712 ± 0.136 mm in white patients (adjusted p = 0.8). Plaque prevalence was also similar in black compared to white cases (35.5% and 44.3%, respectively; adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.32-2.20, p = 0.7). Interactions between population grouping and several CV risk factors were independently associated with cIMT and plaque. In stratified analysis, that is, in each population group separately, risk factors associated with cIMT or/and plaque comprised the systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02), serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p = 0.004), C-reactive protein concentrations (p = 0.01), and the presence of extraarticular manifestations (p = 0.01) in whites but, contrastingly, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales tension score (p = 0.04) and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (p = 0.03) in black patients. The Framingham score was significantly associated with atherosclerosis only in whites (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. The carotid atherosclerosis burden is similar in black compared to white Africans with RA, but relationships between modifiable CV risk factors and atherosclerosis vary substantially among Africans with RA. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2012. All rights reserved. Source

Sardanelli F.,University of Milan | Sardanelli F.,Radiology Unit | Bashir H.,Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Berzaczy D.,Medical University of Vienna | And 20 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To evaluate the inclusion of radiologists or nuclear medicine physicians (imaging specialists) as authors of systematic reviews (SRs) on imaging and imaging-guided diagnostic procedures and to determine the impact of imaging specialists' presence as authors on the overall quality of the reviews. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE and EMBASE search was performed for SRs of diagnostic and interventional image-guided procedures that were published from January 2001 to December 2010. SRs about procedures primarily performed by nonimaging specialists were excluded. The inclusion of imaging specialists among the SR authors and the frequency of publication in imaging journals were evaluated. The quality of a subset of 200 SRs (100 most recent SRs with imaging specialists as authors and 100 most recent SRs without imaging specialists as authors) was rated by using a 12-item modified assessment of multiple SRs (AMSTAR) evaluation tool. Spearman, χ2, and Mann-Whitney statistics were used. Results: From among 3258 retrieved citations, 867 SRs were included in the study. Neuroimaging had the largest number of SRs (28% [241 of 867]), 41% (354 of 867) of SRs concerned diagnostic performance, and 26% (228 of 867) of SRs were published in imaging journals. Imaging specialists were authors (in any position) in 330 (38%) of 867 SRs; they were first authors of 176 SRs and last authors of 161 SRs. SRs with imaging specialists as authors were more often published in imaging journals than in nonimaging journals (54% [179 of 330] vs 9% [49 of 537]; P < .001). The median number of modified AMSTAR quality indicators was nine in SRs with imaging specialists as authors, while that in SRs without imaging specialists as authors was seven (P = .003). Conclusion: Only 38% (330 of 867) of SRs on radiology or nuclear medicine-related imaging published from January 2001 to December 2010 included imaging specialists as authors. However, the inclusion of imaging specialists as authors was associated with a significant increase in the scientific quality (as judged by using a modified AMSTAR scale) of the SR. © RSNA, 2014. Source

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