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Thathapudi S.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | Kodati V.,Geneticist and Research Coordinator | Erukkambattu J.,Kamineni Academy of Medical science and Research Center | Katragadda A.,Anus Fertility Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. © 2014, Research Institute For Endocrine Sciences and Iran Endocrine Society; Published by Kowsar Corp. © 2014, Research Institute For Endocrine Sciences and Iran Endocrine Society.

Govatati S.,Osmania University | Tipirisetti N.R.,Osmania University | Perugu S.,Osmania University | Kodati V.L.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological benign disease that shares several features similar to malignancy. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been reported in all most all types of tumors. However, it is not known as to whether mtDNA mutations are associated with endometriosis. Methodology: We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of analogous ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues along with blood samples from 32 advanced stage endometriosis patients to analyze the role of somatic and germ-line mtDNA variations in pathogenesis of endometriosis. All ectopic tissues were screened for tumor-specific mtDNA deletions and microsatellite instability (MSI). We also performed mtDNA haplogrouping in 128 patients and 90 controls to identify its possible association with endometriosis risk. Principal Findings: We identified 51 somatic (novel: 31; reported: 20) and 583 germ-line mtDNA variations (novel: 53; reported: 530) in endometriosis patients. The A13603G, a novel missense mutation which leads to a substitution from serine to glycine at the codon 423 of ND5 gene showed 100% incidence in ectopic tissues. Interestingly, eutopic endometrium and peripheral leukocytes of all the patients showed heteroplasmy (A/G; 40-80%) at this locus, while their ectopic endometrium showed homoplasmic mutant allele (G/G). Superimposition of native and mutant structures of ND5 generated by homology modeling revealed no structural differences. Tumor-specific deletions and MSI were not observed in any of the ectopic tissues. Haplogrouping analysis showed a significant association between haplogroup M5 and endometriosis risk (P: 0.00069) after bonferroni correction. Conclusions: Our findings substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the diagnosis of endometriosis. © 2012 Govatati et al.

Govatati S.,Osmania University | Kodati V.L.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | Deenadayal M.,Infertility Institute and Research Center | Chakravarty B.,Institute of Reproductive Medicine IRM | And 2 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2014

STUDY QUESTIONAre mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene associated with endometriosis?SUMMARY ANSWERLoss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the 10q23.3 locus, PTEN somatic mutations and changes in the levels and distribution of proteins in the PTEN-PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway are associated with endometriosis.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYEndometriosis has a strong genetic basis. Recent genome-wide association and linkage studies have reported a significant association of endometriosis with 7p15.2, 9p21 and 10q23-26 loci. PTEN, which maps to 10q23.3, acts as a tumor suppressor gene through the action of its phosphatase protein product, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). This phosphatase is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and mutations of PTEN are a step in the development of many cancers.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONA total of 1252 subjects of Indian origin (endometriosis patients = 752; controls = 500) were recruited to participate in this case-control study. Recruitment took place from 2001 to 2009 at Institute of Reproductive Medicine (IRM), Kolkata, India; Infertility Institute and Research Centre (IIRC), Secundrabad, India and Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSLOH on 10q, 9p and 7p was analyzed in analogous ectopic-eutopic endometria along with blood samples from 32 advanced stage endometriosis patients by PCR-GeneScan analysis. Genotyping of PTEN was carried out on genomic DNA of analogous ectopic-eutopic endometria (n = 32) as well as blood samples from 720 patients and 500 controls by PCR-sequencing analysis to explore somatic and germ-line mutations, respectively. The levels and distribution of PTEN, p-Akt, p-Bad and p27 were analyzed in the eutopic endometria of patients (n = 5) and controls (n = 5) using western-blot and immunohistochemistry.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEPCR-GeneScan analysis revealed a higher LOH frequency at 10q23.3 (84.4%) compared with other loci analyzed, hence we focused our attention on PTEN. PCR-sequencing analysis revealed seven novel somatic mutations and 23 germ-line polymorphisms in patients. Among somatic mutations, a frame-shift insertion at 10:89692992-89692993 (in the functionally important N-terminal phosphatase domain of PTEN) occurred in 11 of the 32 ectopic endometria. Western-blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreased PTEN and increased p-Akt and p-Bad levels in eutopic endometria of patients compared with controls (all comparisons, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, PTEN loss was more frequent in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. Expression of p27 did not differ between patients and controls.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONProtein analysis was performed in eutopic endometrial samples from only a small number of patients and controls. In future investigations, a larger sample size should be used and the role of the other genes involved in the PTEN-PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway should be analyzed.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSOur findings revealed a possible involvement of the PTEN-PI3K/Akt-Bad axis in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, which may facilitate the discovery of suitable pathway inhibitors for disease treatment.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was supported by grants from the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India (Lr No: SR/FT/LS-188/2009) to BM. The authors have no competing interests to declare. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Khan I.A.,Kamineni Hospitals | Khan I.A.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | Khan I.A.,Osmania University | Jahan P.,Osmania University | And 4 more authors.
JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been widely investigated in Asian Indian populations with different ethnic origins. The present study examined possible association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. Methods: A total of 200 pregnant women (100 GDM and 100 non-GDM) were recruited in this study and I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gel electrophoresis. Result: The distribution of the variants like II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene showed differences between normal GDM versus non-GDM subjects, and the frequency of the ID+ DD Vs II genotype was significant (p=0.0002) in the GDM group. Conclusion: ACE gene polymorphism was associated with GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2013.z.

Shetty P.J.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | Movva S.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | Pasupuleti N.,Kamineni Life science | Vedicherlla B.,Vasavi Medical and Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: Breast Cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The role of epigenetics as a distinct mechanism to alter gene expression in a tissue-specific manner has emerged as an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of cancer. Present study was carried out to assess the role of methylation in regulating transcription and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an oncogene with parental imprinting. Methods: Paraffin-embedded archival breast tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were used for carrying out PCR-based methylation assay, genomic PCR, immunohistochemistry and Real-Time Reverse transcriptase PCR. Results: A significant loss of methylation in exon 9 CpG cluster of IGF2 in breast tumor tissues was observed when compared to normal tissue (P < 0.0001). Expression of IGF2 by immunohistochemistry exhibited a mean twofold increase correlating with the hypomethylation of this specific CpG. Real-Time RT PCR showed increased transcripts in the tumor tissue supporting the IHC and methylation results. A total of 33% of tumor samples heterozygous for the ApaI IGF2 polymorphism exhibited biallelic IGF2 expression due to loss of imprinting; this was not seen in any of the normal breast tissues. Conclusions: Altered methylation of exonic CpG plays an important role in the enhanced transcription/expression of IGF2 in breast tumors. Methylation analysis of exon 9 CpG can be used as a biomarker for upregulation of IGF2 in breast tumor tissue and maybe developed as a diagnostic test in future. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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