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Shriram V.,University of Pune | Kumar V.,University of Pune | Devarumath R.M.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Khare T.S.,University of Pune | Wani S.H.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nt) sized, non-coding, single stranded riboregulator RNAs abundant in higher organisms. Recent findings have established that plants assign miRNAs as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in sequence-specific manner to respond to numerous abiotic stresses they face during their growth cycle. These small RNAs regulate gene expression via translational inhibition. Usually, stress induced miRNAs downregulate their target mRNAs, whereas, their downregulation leads to accumulation and function of positive regulators. In the past decade, investigations were mainly aimed to identify plant miRNAs, responsive to individual or multiple environmental factors, profiling their expression patterns and recognizing their roles in stress responses and tolerance. Altered expressions of miRNAs implicated in plant growth and development have been reported in several plant species subjected to abiotic stress conditions such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, nutrient deprivation, and heavy metals. These findings indicate that miRNAs may hold the key as potential targets for genetic manipulations to engineer abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is aimed to provide recent updates on plant miRNAs, their biogenesis and functions, target prediction and identification, computational tools and databases available for plant miRNAs, and their roles in abiotic stress-responses and adaptive mechanisms in major crop plants. Besides, the recent case studies for overexpressing the selected miRNAs for miRNA-mediated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic plants have been discussed. © 2016 Shriram, Kumar, Devarumath, Khare and Wani. Source

Dongare M.L.,S M Joshi College | Buchade P.B.,Abasaheb Garware College | Awatade M.N.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Shaligram A.D.,University of Pune
Optik | Year: 2014

Optical techniques developed for sensing and analysis purposes have been used in various fields. An attempt has been made to design optimization of refractormetric based method for the measurement of Brix. Mathematical modeling and simulation of the proposed system has been performed. From the study it is seen that mathematical model may help for getting the better performance to developed experimental model. Optimization of various constructional parameters including selection and location of source, prism and detector, position of source, angular position and height of source from prism plane, divergent angle of source, refractive index of prism, size of prism, the location of detector to pickup the optimum reflected light, refractive index of sample, critical angle, choice of suitable prism. The various possibilities of mounting position of source, detector, prism are studied. The mathematical model is developed considering the above mentioned parameters. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Prabu G.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Prabu G.,Shivaji University | Prabu G.,Karpagam University | Prasad D.T.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Prasad D.T.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2012

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) stress-related MYB transcription factor gene, ScMYBAS1, demonstrated induced response to water deficit and salt stress in our previous study. To elucidate its stress tolerance mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter (PScMYBAS1, 1,033 bp) flanking the 5′ ScMYBAS1 coding region from the sugarcane genome. A series of PScMYBAS1 deletion derivatives from the transcription start site (-56, -152, -303, -442, -613, -777, -843, -1,033) was fused to the uidA reporter gene (GUS) and each deletion construct was analyzed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves subjected to dehydration, salinity, cold, wounding, gibberellic acid (GA), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). Deletion analysis of the promoter, PScMYBAS1, suggested that the 303-bp promoter region was required for basal expression. Promoter fragments, 777 bp or longer showed ~twofold to ~fourfold increased induction of GUS in response to abiotic stress (dehydration, salt, cold, wounding) and hormone (SA, MeJA) treatments. These findings further our understanding of the regulation of ScMYBAS1 expression and provide a new stress-inducible promoter system in transgenic plants. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Sawant R.A.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Tawar P.N.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute
Sugar Tech | Year: 2011

Sodium hypochlorite has been successfully utilized as media sterilant (at total active chlorine concentration 0. 002% in the medium) in production of sugarcane plantlets by applying apical meristem culture technique. The process has been scaled up to produce 2. 5 million sugarcane plantlets per year. Use of sodium hypochlorite in place of autoclaving has resulted in reducing considerable amount of electricity cost and ultimately reducing the cost of production of sugarcane plantlets. © 2011 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion. Source

Kalwade S.B.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Kalwade S.B.,Shivaji University | Devarumath R.M.,Vasantdada Sugar Institute | Devarumath R.M.,Shivaji University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a dynamic C4 polyploidy grass used as a major source of sucrose and an alternative for ethanol, food, and energy. Despite growing scientific interest, various sucrose metabolism regulatory aspects have been limited. Biochemical and gene expression studies were conducted on developmental stages, 240-420 days of planting (DAP) in mature leaves of three high and three low sucrose sugarcane cultivars. Sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities were found to be remarkably higher at 240-360 DAP but decrease at 420 DAP. Twofold increases of SS activity was estimated at 240-360 DAP while SPS activity trend was found to be lower than the SS activity. In comparing SS and SPS activities with the brix of respective DAP, results show that these activities are significant and positively correlated with 'r' values of 0.69 and 0.68 for SS and SPS, respectively. However, the soluble acid invertase (SAI) and neutral invertase (NI) activities were found to decrease significantly with the maturity of cultivars, negatively correlating with brix at 'r' values 0.83 and 0.89 for SAI and NI, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme activity was modulated similar to the invertases activity. Of the six genes, ESAS 11 and 23 associated with sucrose accumulation and ESTS 34 and 41 associated with sugar transport in sugarcane were differentially expressed among the selected high and low sugarcane cultivars. Hence, these findings reinforce the selection of diverse sugarcane cultivars for gene expression studies targeting to quantitative traits and candidate marker determination. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

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