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Renau A.,Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2010

For many years the largest commercial application for particle accelerators has been semiconductor ion implantation. These tools differ from other accelerators in many respects. In particular they are automated to a very high degree and, in addition to technical performance requirements their success depends on other key metrics including productivity, availability and cost of ownership. These tools also operate with a large variety of species, four orders of magnitude of energy range and five orders of magnitude of dose range. The ion source is a key component of implanters with its own performance metrics that include beam current, lifetime, and materials cost. In this paper, we describe the primary applications for ion implantation and some of the beam line architectures that are used. We describe the ion source that has evolved for this application. Some key future challenges for implanter ion source development are also discussed. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Darby B.L.,University of Florida | Yates B.R.,University of Florida | Rudawski N.G.,University of Florida | Jones K.S.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2011

The formation of voids in ion-implanted Ge was studied as a function of ion implantation energy and dose. (001) Ge substrates were self-implanted at energies of 20-300 keV to doses of 1.0 × 10 13-1.0 × 10 17 cm - 2. Transmission electron microscopy revealed clusters of voids just below the surface for implant energies ≤ 120 keV at a dose of 2.0 × 10 15 cm - 2 and complete surface coverage for an implant energy of 130 keV and doses ≥ 1.0 × 10 16 cm - 2. Void clusters did not change in size or density after isothermal annealing at 330 °C for 176 min. The initial void formation is discussed in terms of the vacancy clustering and "microexplosion" theories with a damage map detailing the implant conditions necessary to produce voids. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Renau A.,Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates
IWJT-2010: Extended Abstracts - 2010 International Workshop on Junction Technology | Year: 2010

Recent innovations in ion implantation technology that overcome scaling barriers at 32nm/22nm are reviewed. Some of the hardware improvements will be discussed, but the main focus will be on the process and device data that demonstrates their advantages. These innovations include a cryogenic implant capability that enables a significant reduction in implantation induced crystal damage, molecular implants that show device performance improvements and that use standard ion sources, and various approaches that improve implant performance, particularly when diffusion-less anneal is used. © 2010 IEEE.

Renau A.,Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates
ECS Transactions | Year: 2011

The last few years have seen significant developments in ion implantation: Commercial implanters are now available with cryogenic capabilities to enable significant reductions in implant induced crystal damage; Plasma doping tools are now extensively used in fabs; Modified sources and new chemistries have been developed that allow some implants to be replaced by more exotic molecular implants to enable simultaneous co-implants and minimize end of range damage; Today's implanters give better dopant placement performance than ever before. These changes have been driven by CMOS scaling challenges, particularly at 32nm and 22nm, along with changes in thermal processing and the emergence of new implant applications. Details of some of these developments are given along with some explanation of the changes that have made them necessary. ©The Electrochemical Society.

Stojanovic V.D.,University of Belgrade | Raspopovic Z.M.,University of Belgrade | Jovanovic J.V.,University of Belgrade | Radovanov S.B.,Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2012

Boron produced in plasma devices continues to be the main p-type dopant in ion implantation of semiconductor devices. Yet plasma parameters of most frequently used Boron rich gas, BF 3, are not well established. Time resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in the cathode boundary [1] of a pulsed dc plasma doping system revealed possible role of the charge-transfer collisions between singly charged ions of various mass. The cross sections for scattering of B +, BF + and BF2+ ions on BF 3 molecule are calculated by using Nanbu's theory [2] separating elastic from reactive collisions. A Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to perform calculations of transport parameters in DC electric fields. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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