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Kumar G.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar D.,Sahu Jain College | Johari R.,Vardhman College
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2014

Limited resources of conventional fuels such as petrodiesel have led to the search for alternative fuels. Various convention batch/continuous processes for the biodiesel production have been developed before the recent year. All processes are time consuming with high labor cost. Thus, we need a new process for biodiesel production which reduces the reaction time and production cost as well as save the energy. In this work, ultrasonic assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil is carried out in the presence of methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst, keeping the molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:5, catalyst concentration 0.75 wt% of oil, ultrasonic amplitude 50% and pulse 0.3 cycle, 7 min reaction time under atmospheric condition. Ultrasonic mixing has increased the rate of transesterification reaction as compare to the mechanical mixing. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kumar G.,Chemical science Laboratory | Devi S.,Vardhman College | Johari R.,Vardhaman College
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

M(III) Schiff base macrocyclic complexes of the type [HLMX2] where M = Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) and X = Cl, OAc have been synthesized by condensation of acetylacetone and Thio-carbohydrazide (2:2) in the presence of divalent metal salt in methanolic medium. The complexes have been characterized with the help of elemental analysis, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements and their structural configuration have been determined by various spectroscopic (electronic, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GCMS) techniques. Electronic and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are octahedral. © 2012 Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Tyagi K.,Vardhman College | Mathpal K.C.,Rome Jain Girls College | Tyagi J.,IMS Engineering College
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section A - Physical Sciences | Year: 2011

A one-dimensional time dependent model for the growth rate of the electric field within a thunderstorm by the process of non-inductive charging mechanism has been presented. The growth rate of the electric field and maximum electric field have been obtained by varying the various parameters. It appears that this mechanism is capable of producing the estimated electric fields (3.5 × 105Vm-1) within a time interval about 1200 s only for NZ 20 m-3 (9 = -1.6 x 10-14C, a = 0.5, n=105 m~3, R = 0.003 m). It has been found that charging rates may depends on the graupel size (R), concentration of ice crystals (n), collision efficiency (a), graupel concentration (N) and charge transfer per collision (q). Under no circumstances this mechanism may explain thunderstorm electrification for N < 10 m . It may be unable to meet the observations of thunderstorm lightning at lower precipitation intensities and not at the precipitation intensities as low as 10 mmh-1.

Kumar D.,Vardhman College | Kumar G.,Vardhman College | Kumar G.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Johari R.,Vardhman College | Kumar P.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2012

Biodiesel was obtained by transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil with anhydrous methanol, ethanol, and various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system. The present research work ultrasonic assisted transesterification of J. curcus oil was carried out in the presence of various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst, keeping the molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:6. The methodology allows for the reaction to be run under atmospheric conditions. The ethanomethanolysis and ultrasonic mixing promote the rate of transesterification reaction due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture and obtained methyl esters as well as ethyl esters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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