Vapo Oy

Finland
Finland
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Amha Y.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Bohne H.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Schmilewski G.,Klasmann Deilmann GmbH | Picken P.,Vapo Oy | Reinikainen O.,Vapo Oy
European Journal of Horticultural Science | Year: 2010

The characteristics of peat can be explained by its degree of decomposition (H), dry bulk density (DBD), air (AV) and water (WV) volumes, total pore space (PS), ash and organic carbon contents, C/N ratio, elemental as well as the botanical composition. This study includes results of 20 horticultural peats obtained from different areas of Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden. The tested peats had a decomposition degree of H3 to H7 and Sphagnum (peat moss) was identified as the major peat forming plant genus (35-90%) followed by Carex (5-50%) and mixture of Eriophorum and woody plant remains (5-20%). The mean DBDand PSvaried widely from 40 to 141 g L-1and 87.4 to 96.6% v/v, respectively. Although the tested peats had substantial amounts of WV(43.3 to 82.1% v/v), their mean water buffering capacities were low (<8% of WV) to suggest that these peats cannot deliver enough water to the cultivated plant once the easily available water (water held between -1 and -5 kPa; 17.2 to 42.3% v/v) is gone. Mineral contents (NH4-N, NO3-N, P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn and Fe) in most peats were considerably low but the computed resource availability indices (C/N, C/P, N/P and N/K) were quite high. The variability of nearly 30 parameters, describing the properties of peat, was examined using a Principal Component Analysis and factors relevant to the first two principal components are discussed in details. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart.


A method is disclosed for producing a fuel by gasification in a high-temperature gasifier such as a dust gasifier. An essential feature of the invention is that in the method the dust gasifier is operated by way of co-feeding along with peat dust another kind of biomass dust such as ground wood-based biomass, soil biomass and/or some other similar biomass.


The invention for utilizing thermal energy of gases generated in a BtL plant. A feature of the invention is that the thermal energy of discharge gas streams generated in the BtL plant is used for driving various compressor machineries and/or electricity generation, whereby the plant can operate as a stand-alone facility.


A method is disclosed for utilizing a waste product flow discharged from a Fisher-Tropsch reactor, the waste product chiefly consisting of spent catalyst and FT wax. The method is characterized in that waste flow, specifically containing iron catalyst and FT wax, discharged from the FT reactor is passed back to the gasification unit of the BtL process.


The invention relates to a method for utilizing distillation fractions obtained from distillation of tall oil in a BtL plant. The essential feature of the method allows utilization of tall oil obtained from cellulose plants that is processed into different fractions and passed to different points of the BtL process for producing biofuels and utilizing the same in the gasification step and/or energy generation for the BtL process.


Method for pretreating the fine particles of a biomass. What is essential in the method is that, for pretreating the fine particles for the gasification, the fine particles are granulated by means of pellet presses or suitable briquetting devices or corresponding granulating devices such that their particle size is advantageous for coking and for the quenching of syngas.


Patent
Vapo Oy | Date: 2012-04-25

The invention relates to a method for producing peat, particularly horticultural and fuel peat, in which- the peat is detached from a bog from a deep-peat lifting area (10),- the detached peat is transferred, as a high-consistency mass from the lifting area (10) to a drying field (12), where the transferred peat is spread in a thin layer on the surface of the drying field (12) and dried mainly by exploiting solar energy,- after drying, the dried peat is transferred from the drying field (12) to further use. The drying field (12) is formed on a shallow-peat lifting area (10), by moving the peat mass of the shallow-peat lifting area (10) from the strips (14) adjacent to the drying field (12) to a stack strip (14) forming the drying field (12), after which the drying field (12) is levelled and compacted before the moving of the peat from the deep-peat lifting area (10) to the drying field (12).


The invention relates to a method for producing plant substrate or litter material, in which method organic material (15) is detached mechanically from a lifting area (10), the detached material (15) is stored, after storage, the material (15) is sent for further processing. The organic material is mainly moss biomass (15), which is detached when it is in a frozen state.


A method is disclosed for heating the drying air of a biomass dryer, such as the drying air used in a wire belt conveyor. An essential feature of the invention is that the heating of the drying air takes place with the help of a water-glycol mixture or other equivalent nonfreezing medium flowing in an intermediate circuit, whereby a plant producing biodiesel obtains thermal energy for drying from another nearby-located industrial plant such as a pulp or paper mill.


The invention relates to a method for utilizing distillation fractions obtained from distillation of tall oil in a BtL plant. The essential feature of the method allows utilization of tall oil obtained from cellulose plants that is processed into different fractions and passed to different points of the BtL process for producing biofuels and utilizing the same in the gasification step and/or energy generation for the BtL process.

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