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Broeren A.P.,NASA | Lee S.,Vantage Partners LLC | Clark C.,National Research Council Canada
Journal of Aircraft

The Federal Aviation Administration has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation based upon wind-tunnel experiments with a thin high-performance wing. These allowance times are applicable to many different airplanes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of the wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance tests, boundary-layer surveys, and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0 × 106 and a Mach number of 0.12. Roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances were employed to simulate the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. In the linear portion of the lift curve, the primary aerodynamic effect is the thickening of the downstream boundary layer due to the accumulation of fluid and contamination. This causes a reduction in lift coefficient and an increase in pitching moment (nose up) due to an effective decambering of the wing. The stalling characteristics of the wing with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a muchmore complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing. © Copyright 2015 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Simon D.L.,NASA | Rinehart A.W.,Vantage Partners LLC
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo

This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steady-state information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 by ASME. Source

Simon D.L.,NASA | Rinehart A.W.,Vantage Partners LLC
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power

This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors (SSEE) in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate (CCR) for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies. © 2016, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved. Source

Okojie R.S.,NASA | Lukco D.,Vantage Partners LLC | Nguyen V.,Sienna Technologies, Inc. | Savrun E.,Sienna Technologies, Inc.
IEEE Electron Device Letters

Uncooled MEMS-based 4H-SiC Wheatstone bridge configured piezoresistive pressure sensors were demonstrated from 23 °C to 800°C. The full-scale output (FSO) voltage exhibited gradual decrease with increasing temperature from 23 °C to 400 °C, then swung upward as temperature increased further to where the values measured at 800 °C were nearly equal to or higher than the room temperature values. This newly observed FSO behavior in 4H-SiC contrasts sharply with the FSO behavior of silicon piezoresistive sensors that decrease continuously with increasing temperature. The increase in the sensor output sensitivity at 800 °C implies higher signal to noise ratio and improved fidelity, thereby offering promise of further insertion into >600 °C environments without the need for cooling and complex signal conditioning. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Meador M.A.B.,NASA | Wright S.,NASA | Sandberg A.,NASA | Nguyen B.N.,Ohio Aerospace Institute | And 4 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

The dielectric properties and loss tangents of low-density polyimide aerogels have been characterized at various frequencies. Relative dielectric constants as low as 1.16 were measured for polyimide aerogels made from 2,2′-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and biphenyl 3,3′,4,4′- tetracarbozylic dianhydride (BPDA) cross-linked with 1,3,5- triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB). This formulation was used as the substrate to fabricate and test prototype microstrip patch antennas and benchmark against state of practice commercial antenna substrates. The polyimide aerogel antennas exhibited broader bandwidth, higher gain, and lower mass than the antennas made using commercial substrates. These are very encouraging results, which support the potential advantages of the polyimide aerogel-based antennas for aerospace applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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