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Meador M.A.B.,NASA | Wright S.,NASA | Sandberg A.,NASA | Nguyen B.N.,Ohio Aerospace Institute | And 4 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

The dielectric properties and loss tangents of low-density polyimide aerogels have been characterized at various frequencies. Relative dielectric constants as low as 1.16 were measured for polyimide aerogels made from 2,2′-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and biphenyl 3,3′,4,4′- tetracarbozylic dianhydride (BPDA) cross-linked with 1,3,5- triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB). This formulation was used as the substrate to fabricate and test prototype microstrip patch antennas and benchmark against state of practice commercial antenna substrates. The polyimide aerogel antennas exhibited broader bandwidth, higher gain, and lower mass than the antennas made using commercial substrates. These are very encouraging results, which support the potential advantages of the polyimide aerogel-based antennas for aerospace applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Williams J.C.,NASA | Meador M.A.B.,NASA | McCorkle L.,Ohio Aerospace Institute | Mueller C.,QinetiQ | Wilmoth N.,Vantage Partners LLC
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2014

We report the first synthesis of step-growth aromatic polyamide (PA) aerogels made using amine end-capped polyamide oligomers cross-linked with 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride (BTC). Isophthaloyl chloride (IPC) or terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) were combined with m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) to give amine-capped polyamide oligomers formulated with up to 40 repeat units. Addition of the cross-linker, BTC, typically induces gelation in under 5 min. Solvent exchange of the resulting gels into ethanol followed by supercritical CO2 drying gives colorless aerogels with densities ranging from 0.06 to 0.33 g/cm3, compressive moduli between 5 and 312 MPa, and surface areas as high as 385 m2/g. Dielectric properties were also measured in the X-band frequency range. It was found that relative dielectric constant decreased with density as seen with other aerogels with the lowest relative dielectric constant being 1.15 for aerogels with densities of 0.06 g/cm3. Because of their superior mechanical properties, these aerogels can be utilized in a number of aerospace related applications, such as insulation for rovers, habitats, deployable structures, and extravehicular activity suits, as well as low dielectric substrates for antennas and other electronics. Because of potentially lower cost relative to polyimide and other polymer aerogels, they also have potential for use in more terrestrial applications as well, such as insulation for refrigeration, building and construction, and protective clothing. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Okojie R.S.,NASA | Lukco D.,Vantage Partners LLC | Nguyen V.,Sienna Technologies, Inc. | Savrun E.,Sienna Technologies, Inc.
IEEE Electron Device Letters | Year: 2015

Uncooled MEMS-based 4H-SiC Wheatstone bridge configured piezoresistive pressure sensors were demonstrated from 23 °C to 800°C. The full-scale output (FSO) voltage exhibited gradual decrease with increasing temperature from 23 °C to 400 °C, then swung upward as temperature increased further to where the values measured at 800 °C were nearly equal to or higher than the room temperature values. This newly observed FSO behavior in 4H-SiC contrasts sharply with the FSO behavior of silicon piezoresistive sensors that decrease continuously with increasing temperature. The increase in the sensor output sensitivity at 800 °C implies higher signal to noise ratio and improved fidelity, thereby offering promise of further insertion into >600 °C environments without the need for cooling and complex signal conditioning. © 2014 IEEE.

Meador M.A.B.,NASA | McMillon E.,NASA | Sandberg A.,NASA | Barrios E.,NASA | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2014

The dielectric and other properties of a series of low-density polyimide block copolymer aerogels have been characterized. Two different anhydride-capped polyimide oligomers were synthesized: one from 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and 4,4′-oxidianiline (ODA) and the other from biphenyl-3,3′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic dianhydride and ODA. The oligomers were combined with 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene to form a block copolymer networked structure that gelled in under 1 h. The polyimide gels were supercritically dried to give aerogels with relative dielectric constants as low as 1.08. Increasing the amount of 6FDA blocks by up to 50% of the total dianhydride decreased the density of the aerogels, presumably by increasing the free volume and also by decreasing the amount of shrinkage seen upon processing, resulting in a concomitant decrease in the dielectric properties. In this study, we have also altered the density independent of fluorine substitution by changing the polymer concentration in the gelation reactions and showed that the change in dielectric due to density is the same with and without fluorine substitution. The aerogels with the lowest dielectric properties and lowest densities still had compressive moduli of 4-8 MPa (40 times higher than silica aerogels at the same density), making them suitable as low dielectric substrates for lightweight antennas for aeronautic and space applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Raju M.S.,Vantage Partners LLC
52nd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 2016 | Year: 2016

The open national combustion code (Open- NCC) is developed with the aim of advancing the current multi-dimensional computational tools used in the design of advanced technology combustors. In this paper we provide an overview of the spray module, LSPRAY-V, developed as a part of this effort. The spray solver is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal, and transport properties of a rapidly evaporating multi-component liquid spray. The modeling approach is applicable over a widerange of evaporating conditions (normal, superheat, and supercritical). The modeling approach is based on several well-established atomization, vaporization, and wall/droplet impingement models. It facilitates large-scale combustor computations through the use of massively parallel computers with the ability to perform the computations on either structured & unstructured grids. The spray module has a multi-liquid and multi-injector capability, and can be used in the calculation of both steady and unsteady computations. We conclude the paper by providing the results for a reacting spray generated by a single injector element with 60° axially swept swirler vanes. It is a configuration based on the next-generation lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor concept. The results include comparisons for both combustor exit temperature and EINOX at three different fuel/air ratios. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.

Bidwell C.,NASA | Rigby D.,Vantage Partners Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

A flow and ice particle trajectory analysis was performed for the booster of the Honeywell ALF502 engine. The analysis focused on two closely related conditions one of which produced an icing event and another which did not during testing of the ALF502 engine in the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The flow analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn GlennHT flow solver and the particle analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D v3.63 ice accretion software. The inflow conditions for the two conditions were similar with the main differences being that the condition that produced the icing event was 6.8 K colder than the non-icing event case and the inflow ice water content (IWC) for the non-icing event case was 50% less than for the icing event case. The particle analysis, which considered sublimation, evaporation and phase change, was generated for a 5 micron ice particle with a sticky impact model and for a 24 micron median volume diameter (MVD), 7 bin ice particle distribution with a supercooled large droplet (SLD) splash model used to simulate ice particle breakup. The particle analysis did not consider the effect of the runback and re-impingement of water resulting from the heated spinner and anti-icing system. The results from the analysis showed that the amount of impingement for the components were similar for the same particle size and impact model for the icing and non-icing event conditions. This was attributed to the similar aerodynamic conditions in the booster for the two cases. The particle temperature and melt fraction were higher at the same location and particle size for the non-icing event than for the icing event case due to the higher incoming inflow temperature for the non-event case. The 5 micron ice particle case produced higher impact temperatures and higher melt fractions on the components downstream of the fan than the 24 micron MVD case because the average particle size generated by the particle breakup was larger than 5 microns which yielded less warming and melting. The analysis also showed that the melt fraction and wet bulb temperature icing criterion developed during tests in the Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac) at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada were useful in predicting icing events in the ALF502 engine. The development of an ice particle impact model which includes the effects of particle breakup, phase change, and surface state is necessary to further improve the prediction of ice particle transport with phase change through turbomachinery.

Wright W.B.,Vantage Partners LLC
8th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference | Year: 2016

A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth for many meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from the latest LEWICE release, version 3. 5. This program differs from previous releases in its ability to model mixed phase and ice crystal conditions such as those encountered inside an engine. It also has expanded capability to use structured grids and a new capability to use results from unstructured grid flow solvers. An extensive comparison of the results in a quantifiable manner against the database of ice shapes that have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed. This paper will show the differences in ice shape between LEWICE 3. 5 and experimental data. In addition, comparisons will be made between the lift and drag calculated on the ice shapes from experiment and those produced by LEWICE. This report will also provide a description of both programs. Quantitative geometric comparisons are shown for horn height, horn angle, icing limit, area and leading edge thickness. Quantitative comparisons of calculated lift and drag will also be shown. The results show that the predicted results are within the accuracy limits of the experimental data for the majority of cases. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA.

Simon D.L.,NASA | Rinehart A.W.,Vantage Partners LLC
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2016

This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors (SSEE) in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate (CCR) for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies. © 2016, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

Simon D.L.,NASA | Rinehart A.W.,Vantage Partners LLC
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2014

This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steady-state information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Wey C.,Vantage Partners LLC | Bulzan D.,NASA
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2013

A 9-Point Lean Direct low emissions combustor concept was utilized to evaluate gaseous emissions performance of two bio-derived alternative jet fuels and a JP-8 fuel for comparison. Gaseous emissions were measured in a flame tube operating at inlet temperatures from 650 up to 1030 F, pressures of 150, 250, and 350 psia, and a range of fuel/air ratios. The alternative fuels consisted of a Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids Fuel made from tallow and a second bio derived fuel produced from direct fermentation of sugar. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

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