Vanderbilt University is a private research university located in Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Founded in 1873, the university is named in honor of shipping and rail magnate "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1 million endowment despite having never been to the South. The Commodore hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War.Today Vanderbilt enrolls approximately 12,000 students from all 50 U.S. states and over 90 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the only Level I trauma center in Middle Tennessee. With the exception of the off-campus observatory and satellite medical clinics, all of university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles from downtown. Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. Wikipedia.
Moses H.,Vanderbilt University
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was first implicated in mammary epithelial development by Daniel and Silberstein in 1987 and in breast cancer cells and hormone resistance by Lippman and colleagues in 1988. TGF-β is critically important for mammary morphogenesis and secretory function through specific regulation of epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix. Differential TGF-β effects on distinct cell types are compounded by regulation at multiple levels and the influence of context on cellular responses. Studies using controlled expression and conditional-deletion mouse models underscore the complexity of TGF-β biology across the cycle of mammary development and differentiation. Early loss of TGF-β growth regulation in breast cancer evolves into fundamental deregulation that mediates cell interactions and phenotypes driving invasive disease. Two outstanding issues are to understand the mechanisms of biological control in situ and the circumstances by which TGF-β regulation is subverted in neoplastic progression.
Wang J.,Vanderbilt University
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013
Functional enrichment analysis is an essential task for the interpretation of gene lists derived from large-scale genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. WebGestalt (WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit) has become one of the popular software tools in this field since its publication in 2005. For the last 7 years, WebGestalt data holdings have grown substantially to satisfy the requirements of users from different research areas. The current version of WebGestalt supports 8 organisms and 201 gene identifiers from various databases and different technology platforms, making it directly available to the fast growing omics community. Meanwhile, by integrating functional categories derived from centrally and publicly curated databases as well as computational analyses, WebGestalt has significantly increased the coverage of functional categories in various biological contexts including Gene Ontology, pathway, network module, gene-phenotype association, gene-disease association, gene-drug association and chromosomal location, leading to a total of 78 612 functional categories. Finally, new interactive features, such as pathway map, hierarchical network visualization and phenotype ontology visualization have been added to WebGestalt to help users better understand the enrichment results. WebGestalt can be freely accessed through http://www.webgestalt.org or http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt/.
Odiete O.,Vanderbilt University
Circulation research | Year: 2012
Studies in genetically modified mice have demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), along with the erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) 2, 3, and 4 receptor tyrosine kinases, is necessary for multiple aspects of cardiovascular development. These observations stimulated in vitro and in vivo animal studies, implicating NRG-1/ErbB signaling in the regulation of cardiac cell biology throughout life. Cardiovascular effects of ErbB2-targeted cancer therapies provide evidence in humans that ErbB signaling plays a role in the maintenance of cardiac function. These and other studies suggest a conceptual model in which a key function of NRG-1/ErbB signaling is to mediate adaptations of the heart to physiological and pathological stimuli through activation of intracellular kinase cascades that regulate tissue plasticity. Recent work implicates NRG-1/ErbB signaling in the regulation of multiple aspects of cardiovascular biology, including angiogenesis, blood pressure, and skeletal muscle responses to exercise. The therapeutic potential of recombinant NRG-1 as a potential treatment for heart failure has been demonstrated in animal models and is now being explored in clinical studies. NRG-1 is found in human serum and plasma, and it correlates with some clinical parameters, suggesting that it may have value as an indicator of prognosis. In this review, we bring together this growing literature on NRG-1 and its significance in cardiovascular development and disease.
Knollmann B.C.,Vanderbilt University
Circulation Research | Year: 2013
This article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic insight has been gained? What is the evidence that would support using iPSC-CM to personalize antiarrhythmic drug therapy? The review also discusses the pros and cons of using the iPSC-CM technology for modeling specific genetic arrhythmia disorders, such as long QT syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, or Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
VanSaun M.N.,Vanderbilt University
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013
The increasing percentage of obese individuals in the population and its independent association of increased risk for the development of cancer have heightened the necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie this connection. The deregulation of adipokines in the setting of obesity and their impact on cancer progression and metastasis is one such area of research. Adipokines are bioactive proteins that mediate metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proliferation. Altered levels of adipokines or their cognate receptors in cancers can ultimately lead to an imbalance in downstream molecular pathways. Discovery of adipokine receptors in various cancers has highlighted the potential for novel therapeutic targets. Leptin and adiponectin represent two adipokines that elicit generally opposing molecular effects. Epidemiologic studies have highlighted associations between increased serum leptin levels and increased tumor growth, whereas adiponectin exhibits an inverse correlation with cancer development. This review addresses the current level of understanding of molecular pathways activated by adiponectin and leptin to identify the areas of intervention and facilitate advancement in the field. ©2013 AACR.