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Uddin Md.J.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Crews B.C.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Blobaum A.L.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Kingsley P.J.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Effective diagnosis of inflammation and cancer by molecular imaging is challenging because of interference from nonselective accumulation of the contrast agents in normal tissues. Here, we report a series of novel fluorescence imaging agents that efficiently target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is normally absent from cells, but is found at high levels in inflammatory lesions and in many premalignant and malignant tumors. After either i.p. or i.v. injection, these reagents become highly enriched in inflamed or tumor tissue compared with normal tissue and this accumulation provides sufficient signal for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Further, we show that only the intact parent compound is found in the region of interest. COX-2-specific delivery was unambiguously confirmed using animals bearing targeted deletions of COX-2 and by blocking the COX-2 active site with high-affinity inhibitors in both in vitro and in vivo models. Because of their high specificity, contrast, and detectability, these fluorocoxibs are ideal candidates for detection of inflammatory lesions or early-stage COX-2-expressing human cancers, such as those in the esophagus, oropharynx, and colon. ©2010 AACR.


Guyon A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Kussrow A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Roys Olmsted I.,University of California at Berkeley | Sandoz G.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

CXCR4, a receptor for the chemokine CXCL12 (stromal-cell derived factor-1α), is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), expressed in the immune and CNS and integrally involved in various neurological disorders. The GABAB receptor is also a GPCR that mediates metabotropic action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and is located on neurons and immune cells as well. Using diverse approaches, we report novel interaction between GABAB receptor agents and CXCR4 and demonstrate allosteric binding of these agents to CXCR4. First, both GABAB antagonists and agonists block CXCL12-elicited chemotaxis in human breast cancer cells. Second, a GABAB antagonist blocks the potentiation by CXCL12 of high-threshold Ca 2+ channels in rat neurons. Third, electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells in which we coexpressed rat CXCR4 and the G-protein inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channel showed that GABAB antagonist and agonist modified CXCL12-evoked activation of GIRK channels. To investigate whether GABAB ligands bind to CXCR4, we expressed this receptor in heterologous systems lacking GABAB receptors and performed competition binding experiments. Our fluorescent resonance energy transfer experiments suggest that GABAB ligands do not bind CXCR4 at the CXCL12 binding pocket suggesting allosteric modulation, in accordance with our electrophysiology experiments. Finally, using backscattering interferometry and lipoparticles containing only the CXCR4 receptor, we quantified the binding affinity for the GABAB ligands, confirming a direct interaction with the CXCR4 receptor. The effect of GABAergic agents on CXCR4 suggests new therapeutic potentials for neurological and immune diseases. © 2013 the authors.


Cipriano R.,Case Western Reserve University | Bryson B.L.,Case Western Reserve University | Miskimen K.L.S.,Case Western Reserve University | Bartel C.A.,Case Western Reserve University | And 6 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Despite the progress made in targeted anticancer therapies in recent years, challenges remain. The identification of new potential targets will ensure that the arsenal of cancer therapies continues to expand. FAM83B was recently discovered in a forward genetic screen for novel oncogenes that drive human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) transformation. We report here that elevated FAM83B expression increases Phospholipase D (PLD) activity, and that suppression of PLD1 activity prevents FAM83B-mediated transformation. The increased PLD activity is engaged by hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is regulated by an interaction involving FAM83B and EGFR. Preventing the FAM83B/EGFR interaction by site-directed mutation of lysine 230 of FAM83B suppressed PLD activity and MAPK signaling. Furthermore, ablation of FAM83B expression from breast cancer cells inhibited EGFR phosphorylation and suppressed cell proliferation. We propose that understanding the mechanism of FAM83B-mediated transformation will provide a foundation for future therapies aimed at targeting its function as an intermediary in EGFR, MAPK and mTOR activation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Smathers R.L.,Aurora Pharmaceutical | Galligan J.J.,Aurora University | Galligan J.J.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Shearn C.T.,Aurora Pharmaceutical | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Chronic ethanol consumption is a prominent cause of liver disease worldwide. Dysregulation of an important lipid uptake and trafficking gene, liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), may contribute to alterations in lipid homeostasis during early-stage alcoholic liver. We have reported the detrimental effects of ethanol on the expression of L-FABP and hypothesize this may deleteriously impact metabolic networks regulating fatty acids. Male wild-type (WT) and L-FABP -/- mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for six weeks. To assess the response to chronic ethanol ingestion, standard biochemical indicators for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and oxidative stress were measured. Ethanol ingestion resulted in attenuation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation and elevation of cholesterol in L-FABP -/- mice. Lipidomics analysis validated multiple alterations in hepatic lipids resulting from ethanol treatment. Increased immunohistochemical staining for the reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde were observed in WT mice ingesting ethanol; however, L-FABP -/- mice displayed prominent protein adducts in liver sections evaluated from pair-fed and ethanolfed mice. Likewise, alterations in glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyl content all indicated L-FABP -/- mice exhibit high sustained oxidative stress in the liver. These data establish that L-FABP is an indirect antioxidant protein essential for sequestering FFA and that its impairment could contribute to in the pathogenesis of ALD. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Korade Z.,Vanderbilt University | Xu L.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Mirnics K.,Vanderbilt University | Porter N.A.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Porter N.A.,Vanderbilt University
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2013

7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) accumulates in tissues and fluids of patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), which is caused by mutations in the gene encoding 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ7-reductase (DHCR7). We recently reported that 7-DHC is the most reactive lipid molecule toward free radical oxidation (lipid peroxidation) and 14 oxysterols have been identified as products of oxidation of 7-DHC in solution. As the high oxidizability of 7-DHC may lead to systemic oxidative stress in SLOS patients, we report here lipid biomarkers of oxidative stress in a Dhcr7-KO mouse model of SLOS, including oxysterols, isoprostanes (IsoPs), and neuroprostanes (NeuroPs) that are formed from the oxidation of 7-DHC, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. In addition to a previously described oxysterol, 3β,5α-dihydroxycholest-7-en-6-one (DHCEO), we provide evidence for the chemical structures of three new oxysterols in the brain and/or liver tissue of Dhcr7-KO mice, two of which were quantified. We find that levels of IsoPs and NeuroPs are also elevated in brain and/or liver tissues of Dhcr7-KO mice relative to matching WT mice. While IsoPs and NeuroPs have been established as a reliable measurement of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo, we show that in this genetic SLOS mouse model, 7-DHC-derived oxysterols are present at much higher levels than IsoPs and NeuroPs and thus are better markers of lipid oxidation and related oxidative stress. © 2012 SSIEM and Springer.


Toki S.,Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine | Omary R.A.,Vanderbilt University | Wilson K.,Vanderbilt University | Gore J.C.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2013

Polylysine (PL) has been used to facilitate dendritic cell (DC) uptake of super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this work, we examined the effect of PL on cell toxicity and induction of cell maturation as manifested by the up-regulation of surface molecules. We found that PL became toxic to bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) at the 10. μg/ml threshold. Incubation of BMDCs with 20. μg/ml of PL for 1. h resulted in approximately 90% cell death. However, addition of SPIO nanoparticles rescued DCs from PL-induced death as the combination of SPIO with PL did not cause cytotoxicity until the PL concentration was 1000. μg/ml. Prolonged exposure to PL induced BMDC maturation as noted by the expression of surface molecules such as MHC class II, CD40, CCR7 and CD86. However, the combination of SPIO and PL did not induce BMDC maturation at 1. h. However prolonged exposure to SPIO nanoparticles induced CD40 expression and protein expression of TNFα and KC. The data suggest that the use of PL to enhance the labeling of DCs with SPIO nanoparticles is a dedicated work. Appropriate calibration of the incubation time and concentrations of PL and SPIO nanoparticles is crucial to the development of MRI technology for noninvasive imaging of DCs in vivo. From the Clinical Editor: The authors of this study present detailed data on toxicity and efficiency of polylysine-facilitated uptake of USPIO-s by dendritic cells for cell-specific MR imaging. © 2013.


Xu L.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Korade Z.,Vanderbilt University | Porter N.A.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Free radical chain oxidation of highly oxidizable 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), initiated by 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), was carried out at 37 °C in benzene for 24 h. Fifteen oxysterols derived from 7-DHC were isolated and characterized with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A mechanism that involves abstraction of hydrogen atoms at C-9 and/or C-14 is proposed to account for the formation of all of the oxysterols and the reaction progress profile. In either the H-9 or H-14 mechanism, a pentadienyl radical intermediate is formed after abstraction of H-9 or H-14 by a peroxyl radical. This step is followed by the well-precedented transformations observed in peroxidation reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as oxygen addition, peroxyl radical 5-exo cyclization, and SHi carbon radical attack on the peroxide bond. The mechanism for peroxidation of 7-DHC also accounts for the formation of numerous oxysterol natural products isolated from fungal species, marine sponges, and cactaceous species. In a cell viability test, the oxysterol mixture from 7-DHC peroxidation was found to be cytotoxic to Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells in the micromolar concentration range. We propose that the high reactivity of 7-DHC and the oxysterols generated from its peroxidation may play important roles in the pathogenesis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, all of these being metabolic disorders characterized by an elevated level of 7-DHC. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Bruntz R.C.,Vanderbilt University | Taylor H.E.,Depts. of Medicine | Lindsley C.W.,Vanderbilt University | Lindsley C.W.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Brown H.A.,Vanderbilt University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: Phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid regulate fundamental cellular processes that contribute to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Results: Inhibition of PLD2 decreases activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt leading to cell death through inhibition of autophagic flux. Conclusion: PLD2 promotes autophagy through regulation of Akt in glioblastoma cells. © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. .


May J.C.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Goodwin C.R.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | McLean J.A.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Contemporary strategies that concentrate on only one or a handful of molecular targets limits the utility of the information gained for diagnostic and predictive purposes. Recent advances in the sensitivity, speed, and precision of measurements obtained from ion mobility coupled to mass spectrometry (IM-MS) have accelerated the utility of IM-MS in untargeted, discovery-driven studies in biology. Perhaps most evident is the impact that such wide-scale discovery capabilities have yielded in the areas of systems, synthetic, and chemical biology, where the need for comprehensive, hypothesis-driving studies from multidimensional and unbiased data is required. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Phillip Kennedy J.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology | Lindsley C.W.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2010

This Letter describes the synthesis of the five non-proteogenic amino acids required for the total synthesis of piperazimycin A, and synthetic elaboration into multiple dipeptides. Importantly, this Letter details the first example of an elusive piperazic acid-piperazic acid coupling to form this key C5-C14 dipeptide. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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