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Patel A.R.,Ghent University | Mankoc B.,Ghent University | Bin Sintang M.D.,Ghent University | Lesaffer A.,Vandemoortele R and D Izegem | Dewettinck K.,Ghent University
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

We report the use of fumed silica (hydrophilic colloidal silica particles) to generate triglyceride solvent-based soft matter systems (organogels and bigels). Interestingly, the bigels showed a better gel strength compared to organogels while showing a comparatively weaker thixotropic recovery. Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to understand the microstructure of these new thixotropic molecular gel systems with respect to the fractal-like aggregation of silica particles as well as the percolating network of organic-aqueous phases. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source


Patel A.R.,Ghent University | Rajarethinem P.S.,Ghent University | Gredowska A.,Ghent University | Turhan O.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2014

We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size < 40 μm) were stabilized via interfacial and bulk crystallization of shellac. Chocolate paste prepared by complete replacement of an oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Patel A.R.,Bioscience Technology | Cludts N.,Bioscience Technology | Bin Sintang M.D.,Bioscience Technology | Lewille B.,Bioscience Technology | And 2 more authors.
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

The preparation and characterization of oleogels structured by using a combination of a surface-active and a non-surface-active polysaccharide through an emulsion-templated approach is reported. Specifically, the oleogels were prepared by first formulating a concentrated oil-in-water emulsion, stabilized with a combination of cellulose derivatives and xanthan gum, followed by the selective evaporation of the continuous water phase to drive the network formation, resulting in an oleogel with a unique microstructure and interesting rheological properties, including a high gel strength, G′>4000Pa, shear sensitivity, good thixotropic recovery, and good thermostability. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Patel A.R.,Ghent University | Babaahmadi M.,Ghent University | Lesaffer A.,Vandemoortele R and D Izegem | Dewettinck K.,Ghent University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (Ga″/G′ (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G′LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG′=Ga″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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