Nanaimo, Canada

Vancouver Island University

www.viu.ca
Nanaimo, Canada

Vancouver Island University is a comprehensive, four-year, postsecondary institution serving Vancouver Island and coastal British Columbia. Established in 1969 as Malaspina College, it has grown into an institution that plays an important role in the educational, cultural, and economic life of the region. The main campus is located in Nanaimo, and there are regional campuses in Duncan and Powell River, and a campus centre in Parksville. Wikipedia.

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Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2017

Previously, in Penner (Astrophys. Space Sci. 361:124, 2016a; Astrophys. Space Sci. 361:361, 2016b), a theory of gravitational anti-screening was shown to lead naturally to the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. In addition, it was shown to agree with the observed rotational curve of the Galaxy, the observed features in the rotational curves of other spiral galaxies, with observations of the Coma cluster, and with a geometrically flat universe. In this paper the theory will now be applied to binary galaxies. It is shown that there is a relationship between the line-of-sight velocity difference of the pair and the individual rotational velocities of the galaxies. The resulting probability function for β, defined as the ratio of the line-of-sight velocity difference to the rotational velocity of the larger galaxy of the pair, is in excellent agreement with the observations taken by multiple researchers for the case of the binaries being on radial orbits. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Heiti W.,Vancouver Island University
Ethics and the Environment | Year: 2017

Consider the concept of integrity: on the one hand, we use the concept to describe the integrity of individuals; and we mean something like their intactness and resistance to impingement by antagonistic forces. On the other hand, we also use the concept to describe the integrity of collective structures, such as ecosystems; and we mean something about how the components hang together in a relatively stable way. Jan Zwicky's work does justice to this crucial ambiguity: for her, integrity is a kind of wholeness which is not fusion, but which preserves the distinctness and particularity of its component details. According to this vision, there is reciprocity between the micro-structural details and the macro-structural whole: The character of the whole does determine the character of the details, but it is also constituted by and inseparable from them. While there is an objection to the epistemology of Zwicky's notion of component detail-it seems that we can sometimes grasp "content" while ignoring details-it is not decisive. If we extract the "content" from an ecosystem in a quantitative survey, for example, we have missed something indispensable: because an ecosystem is not fully understandable independently of its role as a home for living, individual organisms. Furthermore, it is an experimental truth that, by attending to details, we learn more about the complex whole of which they are components. Copyright © The Trustees of Indiana University.


Watson J.,Vancouver Island University | Estes J.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

We used the extirpation, reintroduction, and spread of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, to evaluate how the otter-urchin- algae trophic cascade creates variation in rocky reef community structure over space and time. By repeatedly sampling both randomly selected and permanently marked sites in areas where sea otters were continuously present, continuously absent, or became reestablished during a 23-year study period, we found a highly predictable association between community phase states (algae abundant or urchins abundant) and the population status of sea otters. In areas where sea otters were continuously present, urchins were rare and algae dominated, whereas in areas where otters were continuously absent, urchins were abundant and algae were rare. Despite this predictability, the species composition and abundance of algae within otterdominated sites and the abundance of urchins in otter-free sites were spatially and temporally variable. The transition from the urchin-dominated to algal-dominated phase state, brought about by sea otters preying on sea urchins, was documented; at some sites the transition occurred rapidly, whereas at other sites a short-lived transitional state composed of algal- urchin mosaics occurred. We experimentally demonstrate that this mosaic forms when living urchins flee from the damaged tests of conspecifics that are discarded by foraging sea otters, and kelp recruits into the urchin-free patches. Thus, although the phase state dynamics appeared to be stable and predictable based upon the presence or absence of sea otters, we found that spatial and asynchronous temporal variation in recruitment, mortality demography, succession, and prey behavior led to differences in the abundance and/or composition of species within the two phase states. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.


Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

It is shown that basic hypotheses regarding the nature of the source of the observed gravitational anomalies lead naturally to both the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and the Pioneer anomaly. A theory where the gravitational field of a mass induces a gravitational field contribution from the cosmos fits well with these hypotheses. In line with this, a theory is presented where particle-antiparticle pairs exist throughout the cosmos, with a lifetime in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. These particle-antiparticle pairs are displaced in the presence of a gravitational field and contribute to the overall gravitational field of a given mass. The modeled contribution agrees with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the Pioneer anomaly, and the absence of any anomalous gravitational field within the inner solar system. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.


Krogh E.T.,Vancouver Island University | Gill C.G.,Vancouver Island University
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2014

Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) is a direct, continuous, on-line measurement technique. It utilizes amembrane to semi-selectively transfer analytemixtures froma sample to amass spectrometer, rejecting the bulk of the samplematrix, which can be a gas, liquid or solid/slurry. Analyte selectivity and sensitivity are affected by optimizations at the membrane, ionization and the mass spectrometer levels.MIMS can be roughly classified by the acceptor phase that entrains analyte(s) to the mass spectrometer aftermembrane transport, either a gaseous acceptor phase (GP-MIMS) or condensed acceptor phase (CP-MIMS). The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to MIMS as a technique and to explore current variants, recent developments andmodern applications, emphasizing examples from our group, the Applied Environmental Research Laboratories as well as selected work from others in this emerging area. Also provided is a synopsis of current and future directions for this versatile analytical technique. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The theory of an induced energy polarized vacuum is used to determine the rotational curves for modeled galaxies whose baryonic mass distribution parameters are the median values of three classes of spiral galaxies. From the theoretical curves it is found that the bulge contribution plays a dominant role in determining the behavior of the rotational curves in the inner regions (i.e., within three disc scale lengths). For the outer regions the theoretical rotational curves for all the galaxies behave similarly as they slowly fall to the asymptotic value as determined by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship. Overall it is found that rotational curves generated by the induced energy polarized vacuum theory can readily produce observed features in the rotational curves of spiral galaxies. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press.


Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The theory of an induced energy polarized vacuum, as previously presented by the author (Penner. Can. J. Phys. 90, 315 (2012)), is used to generate a theoretical rotational curve for the Galaxy. The theoretical curve generated is found to be in good agreement with Sofue's (Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64, (In press) (2012)) compilation of observations. For the baryonic mass distribution and baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship that is used, the theoretical orbital velocity at the Sun's location is found to be (235 ± 15) km s -1. The galactic rotational velocity is then found to slowly fall from this value as it asymptotically approaches the value of (192 ± 15) km s-1. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press.


Davey N.G.,Vancouver Island University | Krogh E.T.,Vancouver Island University | Gill C.G.,Vancouver Island University
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Membrane-introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) for chemical analysis involves directly sampling analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples through a semi-permeable membrane coupled to a mass spectrometer, yielding selective and sensitive quantitation. Because MIMS is an on-line technique, in which samples can be continuously flowed over a membrane interface, it can yield analytical results in real time without the need for sample clean-up and chromatographic separation. This review highlights trends and developments in MIMS over the past decade and describes recent studies that pertain to its use for on-site, in-situ and in-vivo chemical analysis. We report on advancements in instrumentation, including membrane materials, interface configurations and ionization techniques that have extended the range of analytes amenable to MIMS.We summarize the progress made in the miniaturization of mass spectrometers that have resulted in field-portable systems and review recent applications of continuous mobile monitoring and on-site environmental monitoring to yield both temporally and spatially resolved quantitative and semi-quantitative data. Finally, we describe recent work involving the use of MIMS for in-vivo chemical analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

A theory where the gravitational field of a mass induces a gravitational field contribution from the cosmos is presented. In this theory, entities of both net positive and net negative energy come into existence throughout the cosmos with a maximum lifetime in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. A model of the resulting contribution that these entities make to the gravitational field is provided and is shown to lead to both the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and the Pioneer anomaly. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.


Berezansky L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Idels L.,Vancouver Island University | Troib L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2011

Models of marine protected areas and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia dynamics that belong to the Nicholson-type delay differential systems are proposed. To study the global stability of the Nicholson-type models we construct an exponentially stable linear system such that its solution is a solution of the nonlinear model. Explicit conditions of the existence of positive global solutions, lower and upper estimations of solutions, and the existence and uniqueness of a positive equilibrium were obtained. New results, obtained for the global stability and instability of equilibria solutions, extend known results for the scalar Nicholson models. The conditions for the stability test are quite practical, and the methods developed are applicable to the modeling of a broad spectrum of biological processes. To illustrate our finding, we study the dynamics of the fish populations in Marine Protected Areas. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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