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Nanaimo, Canada

Vancouver Island University is a comprehensive, four-year, postsecondary institution serving Vancouver Island and coastal British Columbia. Established in 1969 as Malaspina College, it has grown into an institution that plays an important role in the educational, cultural, and economic life of the region. The main campus is located in Nanaimo, and there are regional campuses in Duncan and Powell River, and a campus centre in Parksville. Wikipedia.

Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

It is shown that basic hypotheses regarding the nature of the source of the observed gravitational anomalies lead naturally to both the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and the Pioneer anomaly. A theory where the gravitational field of a mass induces a gravitational field contribution from the cosmos fits well with these hypotheses. In line with this, a theory is presented where particle-antiparticle pairs exist throughout the cosmos, with a lifetime in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. These particle-antiparticle pairs are displaced in the presence of a gravitational field and contribute to the overall gravitational field of a given mass. The modeled contribution agrees with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the Pioneer anomaly, and the absence of any anomalous gravitational field within the inner solar system. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Watson J.,Vancouver Island University | Estes J.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

We used the extirpation, reintroduction, and spread of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, to evaluate how the otter-urchin- algae trophic cascade creates variation in rocky reef community structure over space and time. By repeatedly sampling both randomly selected and permanently marked sites in areas where sea otters were continuously present, continuously absent, or became reestablished during a 23-year study period, we found a highly predictable association between community phase states (algae abundant or urchins abundant) and the population status of sea otters. In areas where sea otters were continuously present, urchins were rare and algae dominated, whereas in areas where otters were continuously absent, urchins were abundant and algae were rare. Despite this predictability, the species composition and abundance of algae within otterdominated sites and the abundance of urchins in otter-free sites were spatially and temporally variable. The transition from the urchin-dominated to algal-dominated phase state, brought about by sea otters preying on sea urchins, was documented; at some sites the transition occurred rapidly, whereas at other sites a short-lived transitional state composed of algal- urchin mosaics occurred. We experimentally demonstrate that this mosaic forms when living urchins flee from the damaged tests of conspecifics that are discarded by foraging sea otters, and kelp recruits into the urchin-free patches. Thus, although the phase state dynamics appeared to be stable and predictable based upon the presence or absence of sea otters, we found that spatial and asynchronous temporal variation in recruitment, mortality demography, succession, and prey behavior led to differences in the abundance and/or composition of species within the two phase states. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Robinson L.W.,Vancouver Island University | Berkes F.,University of Manitoba
Human Ecology | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to explore the relevance of a systematic application of resilience thinking to questions of pastoralist policy, a task that requires taking the conceptof resilience beyond the level of a metaphor and operationalizing it. One approach to accomplishing this is the components-relationships-innovation-continuity framework (Cumming et al. 2005), which, in this paper, we apply to analysis of the social-ecological system of the Gabra people in north-central Kenya. While some types of indicators, such as those monitored by humanitarian information systems, can help to identify when the resilience of a system has been eroded, indicators of the components, relationships, and sources of innovation and continuity help o make clear the dynamics of how resilience is being lost. In the case of the Gabra, our analysis suggests that there is a need to envision a third alternative-a stability domain that is distinct both from traditional pastoralism whose viability has been undermined and from the perversely resilient poverty trap that is coming to dominate. While this kind of conclusion may not be new, a resilience-based analysis helps to uncover specific details regarding what such a third alternative might entail and what kinds of policy levers might help to make it possible. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The theory of an induced energy polarized vacuum, as previously presented by the author (Penner. Can. J. Phys. 90, 315 (2012)), is used to generate a theoretical rotational curve for the Galaxy. The theoretical curve generated is found to be in good agreement with Sofue's (Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64, (In press) (2012)) compilation of observations. For the baryonic mass distribution and baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship that is used, the theoretical orbital velocity at the Sun's location is found to be (235 ± 15) km s -1. The galactic rotational velocity is then found to slowly fall from this value as it asymptotically approaches the value of (192 ± 15) km s-1. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Penner A.R.,Vancouver Island University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The theory of an induced energy polarized vacuum is used to determine the rotational curves for modeled galaxies whose baryonic mass distribution parameters are the median values of three classes of spiral galaxies. From the theoretical curves it is found that the bulge contribution plays a dominant role in determining the behavior of the rotational curves in the inner regions (i.e., within three disc scale lengths). For the outer regions the theoretical rotational curves for all the galaxies behave similarly as they slowly fall to the asymptotic value as determined by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship. Overall it is found that rotational curves generated by the induced energy polarized vacuum theory can readily produce observed features in the rotational curves of spiral galaxies. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

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