Kumar S.R.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2016
Though Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Stand] has a wide range of genetic variability, very little attention has been paid to its genetic improvement and commercial cultivation. Investigations were carried out to assess the breeding value of parental lines by combining ability analysis with the Line × Tester method to understand the usefulness of heterosis breeding to develop F1 hybrids for commercial cultivation. Nine lines and four testers were crossed to produce 36 hybrid combinations. The parents and hybrids were evaluated for growth and yield characters. There were differences among hybrids and parents for all characters. Variance associated with lines indicated significant differences for all characters except days to first male flower anthesis, number of seed per fruit, and 100 seed weight. For testers, variances exhibited significant differences among genotypes except for vine length, days to first male flower anthesis, days to first female flower anthesis, sex ratio, fruit width, fruit flesh thickness, number of seed per fruit, 100 seed weight, and yield per plant. The variance due to the interaction between lines and testers was significant for all characters except node at first female flower anthesis. The specific combining ability (sca) variances were greater than general combining ability (gca) variances and the ratio of gca/sca variances did not exceed unity, indicating the predominance of nonadditive gene action for all traits. Mean performance and gca effects of parents indicated the superiority of the lines Punjab Long, Kalyanpur Long Green, and Pusa Naveen and testers NDBG-164 and Samrat for most yield attributing characters. Based on mean performance, heterosis and sca effects, hybrids from the crosses ‘Pusa Naveen × NDBG-164’, ‘Pusa Naveen × Punjab Komal’, and ‘NDBG-121 × Samrat’ could be promising for commercial exploitation of fruit yield in F1 hybrids. Number of fruit per vine and fruit flesh thickness were significantly and positively correlated with yield. From path analysis, number of fruit per vine, days to first male flower anthesis, fruit cavity size, fruit weight, days to first fruit harvest, and total soluble solids (TSS) were identified as reliable components of yield and exerted positive, direct effects on yield. When selecting the best hybrids for yield in bottle gourd, more emphasis should be given to number of fruit per vine, fruit flesh thickness, days to first male flower anthesis, fruit cavity size, fruit weight, days to first fruit harvest, and TSS. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Kumar S.R.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2015
Wax gourd, commonly called ash gourd in India [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.], has a long storage life and value can be added after processing. Though there is variation in wax gourd traits, especially fruit characters, little work has been done related to genotype variability. The F2 progenies of the crosses ‘Indhu’ ×‘CO-2’ (cross 1), ‘Indhu’ ×‘Vasundhara’ (cross 2), and ‘Vasundhara’ ×‘KAU Local’ (cross 3) and selfed parents were studied. Observations on 15 characters were recorded on single plants in each F2 segregants of crosses for genetic analysis. Cross 2 had the highest fruit yield per plant with the most branches, highest number of female flowers, most fruit, highest fruit weight, greatest fruit diameter, thickest flesh, and highest percentage sex ratio, followed by cross 1. High genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and high heritability and genetic advance occurred in the F2 segregating population of cross 2 for yield per plant, flesh thickness, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, number of fruit, and sex ratio, indicating that these traits were governed by additive genes. These characters can be used as criteria for selecting plants in the segregating population. From correlation and path analysis, earliness in flower opening, sex ratio, number of fruit, individual fruit weight, and flesh thickness had significant, positive correlations and high direct, positive effects on yield. These characters can be used as selection indices for further improvement through breeding. Frequency distribution of F2 progenies exhibited a transgressive pattern on a wider range in a positive, unidirectional distribution at high proportion over parental values for yield and most characters in cross 1 and cross 2. For these populations simple pure line selection could be used to improve fruit yield per plant. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Karmel Reetha A.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture |
Lalitha Pavani S.,Andhirapradesh Rice Research institute |
Mohan S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2014
Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops grown all over the India. Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a major disease causing severe yield loss upto 52 per cent.The pathogen invasion occurs from the seedling to maturity stage. To overcome these problem In vitro, sensitivity of M. phaseolina determined through inhibition zone technique to seven isolates offungi antagonistic viz.,Tv1, ETv2, EDTv3, ATv4, CTv5, MTv6andKTv7amended into PDA medium on seven days after inoculation. All the antagonists reduced the colony growth of M. phaseolina significantly compared to the control. Among this isolates Tv1 was effective (74.12%) in reducing the colony growth of M. phaseolina followed byCTv5(68.39), EDTv3 (48.36)respectively over control. © 2014, JBiopest. All Rights Reserved.
Hariprasath B.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012
Molecular docking was carried out against two target proteins which are helpful for MRSA infection with the help of accelrys discovery studio to understand the applicability of the method to differentiate between the active and inactive compounds. Molecular docking of thirty two structurally diverse inhibitors were carried out and it was observed that though some false positives were also obtained; considering the limitations of the available docking programs, the results were promising. The high molecular weight compounds with heterocyclic rings showed very low binding energy, but did not comply with Lipinski's rule. The active constituents that were docked with the protein are Baicalein, Biochanin, Carnosol, Genistein, Orobol, Resveratrol, Rhein, Gallic acid, Pyrithione, Resveratrol and Linozolid. The compound Orobol was found to interact more towards the target protein like showing highest Dock score.
Anitha T.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012
Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure.
Kumar S.R.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture |
Arumugam T.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Balakrishnan S.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Anandakumar C.R.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013
In the past, very little efforts have been taken for development of inbred lines of brinj al through the exploitation of genetic variability present in the exotic hybrids. F2 generation obtained from the selfing of F1hybrid provides all possible variations. So, selection with particular objectives in F2 generation is very much effective and selfing of those selected genotypes generation after generation helps to develop inbred lines (similar to the parental lines of the exotic hybrids). These inbreds with desired characters including high yield potential can be used as High Yielding Variety (HYV) as well as the parents for hybrid variety. To increase the genetic yield potential, the maximum utilization of the desirable characters for synthesizing of any ideal genotypes is essential. Variability in brinjal is expected to be immense as the fruits vary greatly in shape and size. The present investigation was undertaken at Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during 2011 to determine variability in segregants of eggplant (Solanum melogenaL.). The crosses L5×T4 (PalameduLocal×EP 65) andL4xT1 (Alagarkovil Local×Annamalai) had the highest mean with high variability for individual fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. These crosses were best for using as a base population for further improvement in fruit yield and fruit weight as they had high heritability and genetic advance. Favorable low mean with high variability occurred for days to first flowering (earliness) in the crosses L5×T2 (Palamedu Local×KKM 1) and L4×T2 (Alagarkovil Local×KKM 1). Direct selection may be executed considering these genotypes for selection towards the development of early in flowering and high yielding brinjal variety. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.
Jagatheeswari J.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014
The survey was conducted on distribution status of avifauna in four major ecological zones and respective habitats of the lake ecosystem were classified in to (1) Open waters of muddy shores and sand bars (2) Deep shallow lake bed areas: (3) Wet borders of river channels and discharging drains (4) Lake fringes and marginal areas. A study was undertaken on habitat evaluation of avifaunal diversity of Kondakarla fresh water lake ecosystem of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India for a period of 3 years from 2010-2013. Bio diversity and its conservation are regarded as one of natural resources. Kondakarla fresh water lake ecosystem inhabits several aquatic organisms. To evaluate habitat configuration and their utilization patterns of birds and to suggest conservation measures for ecological resilience of lake habitats and bring back the pristine glory of Lake Ecosystem. © EM International.
Mariappan N.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture |
Srimathi P.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture |
Sundaramoorthi L.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture |
Sudhakar K.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014
To evaluate laboratory germination media, seed germination rates and methodology for both Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were counted in different germination medium, such as river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. The seeds of both species were sown at 2-cm depth of river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. We evaluated methodologies of seeds of J. curcas and P. pinnata by ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). The results showed that river sand is the best medium for tree seeds planted at 2-cm depth of River sand. Vermiculite was second best. On paper media, there were many abnormal seedlings and this media were unsuitable for germination of the larger seeds. © 2014, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Sangeetha C.,Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015
A field experiment was conducted at wetland farms, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India during rabi seasons of two years 2011-12, 2012-13 to study the root characteristics of rice under different establishment techniques and weed management practices. Results revealed that the root dry weight, root volume, root length and root length density were recorded higher values in SRI machine transplanting than conventional system at all growth stages during both the years of investigation. Similarly in case of weed management practices, the above said root growth parameters of rice, also expressed significantly higher values at various observational growth stages when crop made free with conoweeding 4 times at 10, 20, 30 and 40 DAT over unweeded control during both years of field study. The treatment combination of mechanical transplanting with four conoweeding at 10 days interval starting from 10 DAT registered significantly higher values for growth characters and yield attributes, and resulted in higher grain yield, which is comparable with mechanical transplanting with pretilachlor (0.75kg ha-1PE ) + bispyribac sodium (20g ha-1 EPOE) + conoweeding at 40 DAT.
PubMed | Agricultural College and Research Institute and Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2014
In the past, very little efforts have been taken for development of inbred lines of brinjal through the exploitation of genetic variability present in the exotic hybrids. F2 generation obtained from the selfing of F1 hybrid provides all possible variations. So, selection with particular objectives in F2 generation is very much effective and selfing of those selected genotypes generation after generation helps to develop inbred lines (similar to the parental lines of the exotic hybrids). These inbreds with desired characters including high yield potential can be used as High Yielding Variety (HYV) as well as the parents for hybrid variety. To increase the genetic yield potential, the maximum utilization of the desirable characters for synthesizing of any ideal genotypes is essential. Variability in brinjal is expected to be immense as the fruits vary greatly in shape and size. The present investigation was undertaken at Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during 2011 to determine variability in segregants of eggplant (Solanum melogena L.). The crosses L5 x T4 (Palamedu Local x EP 65) and L4 x T1 (Alagarkovil Local x Annamalai) had the highest mean with high variability for individual fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. These crosses were best for using as a base population for further improvement in fruit yield and fruit weight as they had high heritability and genetic advance. Favorable low mean with high variability occurred for days to first flowering (earliness) in the crosses L5 x T2 (Palamedu Local x KKM 1) and L4 x T2 (Alagarkovil Local x KKM 1). Direct selection may be executed considering these genotypes for selection towards the development of early in flowering and high yielding brinjal variety.