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Tarasso V.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute | Zachovalova V.N.,Czech Metrology Institute | Mansten T.,Mittatekniikan Keskus Center for Metrology and Accreditation | Pogliano U.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | And 2 more authors.
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

This paper gives a survey of the performance of existing current shunts designed by National Metrology Institutes (NMI's) around Europe. Key characteristics for power measurement; phase displacement, ac-dc transfer difference and power coefficient of the shunt resistance is reported for 5A, 50 A and 100 A shunts. © 2010 IEEE.

Fellmuth B.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Wolber L.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Head D.I.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Hermier Y.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | And 12 more authors.
Metrologia | Year: 2012

An overview of the results of an international star intercomparison of low-temperature fixed points is given. Between 1997 and 2005, 68 sealed triple-point cells (STPCs) of the twelve laboratories represented by the authors were investigated at PTB. The STPCs are used to realize the triple points of hydrogen, neon, oxygen and argon as defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990, ITS-90. The melting curves (MCs) of all STPCs have been measured on the same experimental equipment, adhering strictly to a single measurement program. This protocol enables separation of the effects influencing the MCs and direct comparison of the thermal behaviour of the STPCs, which are quite different with respect to design, age, gas source and filling technology. In the paper, special emphasis is given to the spread of the liquidus-point temperatures and to the uncertainty of their determination. Connections between the star intercomparison and completed and ongoing international activities are also discussed. © 2012 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

Bosco G.C.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | Garcocz M.,Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying BEV | Lind K.,Norwegian Metrology Service | Pogliano U.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2011

A comparison of the phase error of existing shunts for currents between 10 and 100 A and frequencies from 500 Hz to 100 kHz has been organized. Measurement processes were performed at Istituto Nationale di Ricerca Metrologica on some shunts using the first prototype of a new type of a phase comparator and a step-up method for data processing. Results of the relative measurement processes have shown good repeatability. The method for evaluation of reference values was based on similar shunts and suitable assumptions and derived by extrapolation. For the type of resistance elements employed in these shunts, the derivation of the reference is not very accurate and still needs to be improved. © 2006 IEEE.

Mubarak F.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Rietveld G.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Spirito M.,Technical University of Delft
83rd ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: Microwave Measurements for Emerging Technologies, ARFTG 2014 | Year: 2014

Errors due to inevitable cable flexure are one of the major error and uncertainty sources in high-precision S-parameter measurements. Recently developed two-port electronic calibration units allow for determination and correction of these errors. A method is presented where such a unit is applied to de-embed cable flexure errors in S-parameter measurements. In a series of steps, the effects of the cable as well as from the electronic calibration unit itself are determined and subsequently corrected for. First results show that using this method, cable flexure errors can be decreased with a factor of 5 to 10, with the most significant gain at the higher frequencies. © 2014 IEEE.

Mubarak F.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Mubarak F.,Technical University of Delft | Romano R.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Spirito M.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL
86th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: Microwave Measurements with Applications to Bioengineering and Biomedicine, ARFTG 2015 | Year: 2015

A broadband S-parameter measurement system for extreme impedance measurements is proposed and analyzed in terms of its accuracy. Measurement speed and system resolution at extreme impedance values is comparable to that of a conventional Vector Network Analyzer performance achieved for 50 Ω device measurements. A dedicated one-port calibration method is modeled in a circuit simulator environment and implemented for the proposed system. Compared to the 0.05 % measurement resolution in extreme impedance measurements using a state-of-art 50 Ω VNA, an almost fifty times lower 0.001 % resolution is achieved with the proposed VNA system utilizing an interferometric principle, with active compensation of reflected waves. © 2015 IEEE.

Acanski M.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Rietveld G.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Hoogenboom D.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL
CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest | Year: 2016

A measurement setup is developed for accurate phase calibration of phasor measurement units (PMUs) and PMU calibrators. The measurement method is based on generating a reference signal with known phase with respect to a 1 pulse-per-second time reference using a stepped sine wave signal. © 2016 IEEE.

Rietveld G.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Braun J.P.,Federal Office of Metrology METAS | Wright P.W.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Grottker U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

The transformation of our present electricity grids into 'smart grids' is crucial for the successful uptake of renewable energy sources in the grid. In a combined effort of 18 European national metrology institutes and 4 universities and research centers, the necessary metrology tools will be developed to facilitate the observability and controllability of this new technology. The extensive research program will develop, refine and apply new metrological tools to determine power flows, stability, and power quality of smart electrical grids. New design methodologies will optimize smart grid instrumentation networks for reliable and stable energy supply. Fair trade will be assured through the implementation of revenue billing systems and a cryptographic infrastructure. © 2010 IEEE.

Wright P.S.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Rietveld G.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Van Den Brom H.E.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Crotti G.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | Braun J.P.,Federal Institute of Metrology METAS
CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest | Year: 2016

Significant scientific progress has been achieved in the first 18 months of an EU funded project on metrology in support of smart electrical grids. In this project, fourteen European NMIs and two universities are partnering in research themes including: i) wide-Area power quality (PQ) propagation ii) Phasor measurement Units (PMU) for distribution networks iii) network impedance measurements and iv) transducer metrology in support of PμPQ. © 2016 IEEE.

Bich W.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | Cox M.G.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Dybkaer R.,Region H Frederiksberg Hospital | Elster C.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | And 10 more authors.
Metrologia | Year: 2012

The Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, Working Group 1, JCGM-WG1, is currently revising the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. In this communication, the motivation for undertaking such a revision is given and the main changes with respect to the current, 2008 edition are outlined. © 2012 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.

Mubarak F.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL | Rietveld G.,Van Swinden Laboratorium VSL
84th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: The New Frontiers for Microwave Measurements, ARFTG 2014 | Year: 2014

With S-parameter measurement uncertainties reaching accuracy limits far beyond those previously achieved, uncertainty evaluation methods need to be advanced as well. A method based on Fourier analysis is presented for uncertainty analysis of one-port Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements. The new uncertainty assessment method is validated using a system-level VNA model designed in Advanced Design System (ADS) software. The model replicates a one-port airline measurement system and allows for simulation of typical measurement scenarios including different residual error levels. The simulated airline measurement data is used to validate the proposed uncertainty assessment algorithm and to find the right gating window in the Fourier analysis. One of the main analysis results for 3.5 mm precision connectors is that airlines of 15-cm length should be used in uncertainty analysis of calibrated one-port VNAs using the Fourier analysis method. For short airlines the frequency dependence of the residual errors and airline termination lead to much higher estimated VNA uncertainties. © 2014 IEEE.

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