Garel E.,University of Algarve |
Rey C.C.,Acciona |
Ferreira T.,University of Algarve |
van Koningsveld M.,Van Oord ACZ |
van Koningsveld M.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2014
This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
de Vriend H.,Technical University of Delft |
van Koningsveld M.,Van Oord ACZ |
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2014
The Netherlands has adopted a new, proactive approach to developing its extensive coastal and river works called 'building with nature'. Rather than simply minimising or mitigating the environmental impact of harbours, navigation channels, land reclamation and flood defences, the idea is to make use of the dynamics of the natural environment and provide opportunities for natural processes. Existing concepts and ideas have been further developed and tested in a number of full-scale pilot experiments, including sand engines, oyster reefs and wave-attenuating forests. This paper describes a number of these experiments along with the preliminary results and lessons learned.
Smid M.,Technical University of Delft |
Dekker S.,Van Oord ACZ |
Wiegmans B.,Technical University of Delft
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2016
Cost characteristics of differently sized inland waterway terminals (IWTs) have not received much scientific attention. This observation is remarkable given the importance of costs in transportation decision-making. Classification of differently sized IWTs and their cost structure will lead to more insight into the container cost per terminal. Therefore, the goal of our research was to determine both the characteristics of the cost structure associated with different inland waterway (IWW) container terminal types and the sensitivity of the system to cost/TEU changes in input and operational conditions. We show that terminals with a higher container throughput encounter fewer costs, and can therefore charge a lower price. Assumed delays of 2. h per day on the waterside cause a 4.7-6.6% cost increase per container, mainly caused by extra labor costs. It is also assumed that the changing climate will influence terminal operations and results in extreme water levels (lasting two weeks occurring four times a year) causing a cost increase of 1.0-3.4%. Subsidies can cause cost reductions of 0.3-10.4% depending on the exact form, with the smaller terminals benefiting more because their investment costs are higher relative to operational costs. A subsidy can lower costs by up to 10.4%, but it is questionable whether small and medium terminals will have a lower cost price than the market price, showing that it is important for small and medium terminals to quickly grow in size. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
de Nijs M.A.J.,Technical University of Delft |
de Nijs M.A.J.,Van Oord ACZ |
Pietrzak J.D.,Technical University of Delft
Ocean Modelling | Year: 2012
We explore the dynamics of the salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) in the Rotterdam Waterway using three-dimensional model simulations. These are compared to 13-h time series of profiles of velocity, salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM) at a number of boat stations along the estuary, and long-term water level and salinity records. Evaluation of the numerical results shows that while good agreement is found between predicted and measured water levels and tidal discharges, the model under-predicts saltwater intrusion and stratification, and it over-predicts the height of the pycnocline above the bed. This leads to deficiencies in predictions of (1) the magnitude and vertical distribution of the baroclinic pressure gradient and subsequently of local shear and (2) vertical SPM gradients and concentrations near the bed because salinity stratification determines this distribution. However, the stability of the salt wedge during tidal excursions, the dominant role played by currents caused by the baroclinic pressure gradient and the damping of turbulence at the pycnocline with subsequent trapping of fluvial SPM at the head of the salt wedge are all well reproduced. A single stable ETM is formed when the salt wedge remains in the Rotterdam Waterway at low water slack. When saltwater intrudes farther up-estuary, multiple stable along-channel ETMs are maintained by localized trapping of fluvial SPM at the respective heads of saltwater by salinity gradients. Our results demonstrate that (1) the saltwater intrusion length is one of the main parameters controlling the SPM trapping probability and (2) the ETM is an advective phenomenon determining the timing of the availability of SPM for exchange with harbours. The model results indicate that all sediments deposited in the harbours along the Rotterdam Waterway and New Meuse are of fluvial origin. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Fiselier J.,RoyalHaskoningDHV |
Vreman B.-J.,RoyalHaskoningDHV |
Dekker S.,Van Oord ACZ |
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Maritime Engineering | Year: 2015
Dredging projects use large amounts of fuel, which leads to substantial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Until now, reducing the carbon footprint of dredging projects has mainly involved investigating the possibilities of dredging schemes and vessels that are more fuel efficient. A reduction in the order of 10-20% may be within reach, most of it is a win-win situation since fuel reduction will also reduce costs. A further reduction in carbon dioxide emissions may be possible on a project-by-project basis but will involve a trade-off between dredging costs and carbon dioxide emissions. Marine engineering projects also have an impact on primary production and formation of organic carbon and on sedimentation processes and burial of organic carbon in sediments. Both impacts influence carbon sequestration and can be a substantial or even overriding factor in the ‘carbon footprint’ of a project. The carbon footprint of a marine engineering project is often larger and more complex than previously anticipated. However, a more comprehensive carbon footprint also shows that a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is possible when the designs and dredging and maintenance schemes stimulate sequestration of organic carbon in the wider environment. © 2015, ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.