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Stark K.D.,University of Waterloo | Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. | Higgins M.R.,MEDetect Clinical Information Associates Inc. | Weatherford C.A.,Weatherford | Salem N.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2016

Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA + DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA + DHA blood levels (> 8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤ 4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA + DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA + DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. © 2016 The Authors. Source


Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. | McNeill S.H.,Human Nutrition Research
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Studies of forage and/or grass feeding of cattle versus grain finishing have been conducted in varying regions throughout the world but generalization of these results to beef from U.S. cattle may not be appropriate. In particular, available grass/forage variety and form as well as cattle breed have a significant impact on the nutritional profile of beef. The current review summarizes the nutritional characteristics of beef as reported from the limited number of studies comparing U.S. grass/forage-fed versus grain-finished cattle and estimates the intake of key nutrients that might be expected from consumption of U.S. beef from either feeding system. In addition, many studies report changes in fatty acids solely as a percentage of total fatty acids. Since grass/forage feeding typically results in a leaner product; the current review compares the fatty acid profile of beef from grass/forage feeding to that of grain-finished cattle on a mg/100. g of meat basis. © 2013 . Source


Maki K.C.,Biofortis Provident Clinical Research | Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. | Alexander D.D.,Exponent, Inc. | Rains T.M.,Biofortis Provident Clinical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2012

Background: Limited consumption of red meat, including beef, is one of many often-suggested strategies to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the role that beef consumption specifically plays in promoting adverse changes in the cardiovascular risk factor profile is unclear. Objective: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled, clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effects of beef, independent of other red and processed meats, compared with poultry and/or fish consumption, on lipoprotein lipids. Methods: RCTs published from 1950 to 2010 were considered for inclusion. Studies were included if they reported fasting lipoprotein lipid changes after beef and poultry/fish consumption by subjects free of chronic disease. A total of 124 RCTs were identified, and 8 studies involving 406 subjects met the prespecified entry criteria and were included in the analysis. Results: Relative to the baseline diet, mean ± standard error changes (in mg/dL) after beef versus poultry/fish consumption, respectively, were -8.1 ± 2.8 vs. -6.2 ± 3.1 for total cholesterol (P =.630), -8.2 ± 4.2 vs. -8.9 ± 4.4 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P =.905), -2.3 ± 1.0 vs. -1.9 ± 0.8 for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P =.762), and -8.1 ± 3.6 vs. -12.9 ± 4.0 mg/dL for triacylglycerols (P =.367). Conclusion: Changes in the fasting lipid profile were not significantly different with beef consumption compared with those with poultry and/or fish consumption. Inclusion of lean beef in the diet increases the variety of available food choices, which may improve long-term adherence with dietary recommendations for lipid management. © 2012 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved. Source


McNeill S.,Human Nutrition Research | Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Miller P.E.,Exponent, Inc. | Van Elswyk M.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. | Alexander D.D.,Exponent, Inc.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND Although a large body of literature has been devoted to examining the relationship between eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and blood pressure, past systematic reviews have been hampered by narrow inclusion criteria and a limited scope of analytical subgroups. In addition, no meta-analysis to date has captured the substantial volume of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 2 years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of EPA+DHA, without upper dose limits and including food sources, on blood pressure in RCTs. METHODS Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate weighted group mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the EPA+DHA group and the placebo group. Analyses were conducted for subgroups defined by key subject or study characteristics. RESULTS Seventy RCTs were included. Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA provision reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.52mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) =-2.25 to-0.79) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.99mm Hg; 95% CI =-1.54 to-0.44) in the meta-analyses of all studies combined. The strongest effects of EPA+DHA were observed among untreated hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure =-4.51mm Hg, 95% CI =-6.12 to-2.83; diastolic blood pressure =-3.05mm Hg, 95% CI =-4.35 to-1.74), although blood pressure also was lowered among normotensive subjects (systolic blood pressure =-1.25mm Hg, 95% CI =-2.05 to-0.46; diastolic blood pressure =-0.62mm Hg, 95% CI =-1.22 to-0.02). CONCLUSIONS Overall, available evidence from RCTs indicates that provision of EPA+DHA reduces systolic blood pressure, while provision of ≥2 grams reduces diastolic blood pressure. © 2014 The Author. Source

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