Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc |
McNeill S.H.,Human Nutrition Research
Meat Science | Year: 2014
Studies of forage and/or grass feeding of cattle versus grain finishing have been conducted in varying regions throughout the world but generalization of these results to beef from U.S. cattle may not be appropriate. In particular, available grass/forage variety and form as well as cattle breed have a significant impact on the nutritional profile of beef. The current review summarizes the nutritional characteristics of beef as reported from the limited number of studies comparing U.S. grass/forage-fed versus grain-finished cattle and estimates the intake of key nutrients that might be expected from consumption of U.S. beef from either feeding system. In addition, many studies report changes in fatty acids solely as a percentage of total fatty acids. Since grass/forage feeding typically results in a leaner product; the current review compares the fatty acid profile of beef from grass/forage feeding to that of grain-finished cattle on a mg/100. g of meat basis. © 2013 .
McNeill S.,Human Nutrition Research |
Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc.
Meat Science | Year: 2012
The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
McNeill S.H.,Human Nutrition Research |
Harris K.B.,Texas A&M University |
Field T.G.,National Cattlemens Beef Association |
Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc.
Meat Science | Year: 2012
Changes in cattle breeding and management coupled with extensive trimming of visible fat from retail cuts have resulted in the wide-spread availability of lean beef to U.S. consumers. Despite these changes, there is limited awareness regarding the reduced total fat content and the favorable fatty acid profile of beef. Relative to the calories it contributes, the impact of beef on the nutritional quality of the American diet via its contribution of protein and certain key micronutrients is often under appreciated. The following discussion documents the progressive reduction in fat content of U.S. beef during the past 30. years, highlights ongoing efforts to update United States Department of Agriculture nutrient data for beef, and summarizes findings from randomized controlled trials of beef and plasma lipid outcomes. Beef is a popular, nutrient-dense food and the availability of at least 29 lean cuts of beef in the U.S. marketplace can help consumers meet their cardiovascular health goals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Stark K.D.,University of Waterloo |
Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. |
Higgins M.R.,MEDetect Clinical Information Associates Inc. |
Weatherford C.A.,Weatherford |
Salem N.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd.
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2016
Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA + DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA + DHA blood levels (> 8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤ 4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA + DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA + DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. © 2016 The Authors.
PubMed | Van Elswyk Consulting Inc., DSM Nutritional Products Inc. and EpidStat Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Subjective memory complaints are common with aging. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) and an integral part of neural membrane phospholipids that impacts brain structure and function. Past research demonstrates a positive association between DHA plasma status/dietary intake and cognitive function.The current meta-analysis was designed to determine the effect of DHA intake, alone or combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3), on specific memory domains: episodic, working, and semantic in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. A secondary objective was to systematically review/summarize the related observational epidemiologic literature.A systematic literature search of clinical trials and observational studies that examined the relationship between n-3 LCPUFA on memory outcomes in healthy adults was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies of subjects free of neurologic disease at baseline, with or without mild memory complaints (MMC), were included. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate weighted group mean differences, standardized weighted group mean differences (Hedges g), z-scores, and p-values for heterogeneity comparing DHA/EPA to a placebo. A priori sub-group analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of age at enrollment, dose level, and memory type tested.Episodic memory outcomes of adults with MMC were significantly (P<.004) improved with DHA/EPA supplementation. Regardless of cognitive status at baseline, > 1 g/day DHA/EPA improved episodic memory (P<.04). Semantic and working memory changes from baseline were significant with DHA but no between group differences were detected. Observational studies support a beneficial association between intake/blood levels of DHA/EPA and memory function in older adults.DHA, alone or combined with EPA, contributes to improved memory function in older adults with mild memory complaints.
Maki K.C.,Biofortis Provident Clinical Research |
Van Elswyk M.E.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc. |
Alexander D.D.,Exponent, Inc. |
Rains T.M.,Biofortis Provident Clinical Research |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2012
Background: Limited consumption of red meat, including beef, is one of many often-suggested strategies to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the role that beef consumption specifically plays in promoting adverse changes in the cardiovascular risk factor profile is unclear. Objective: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled, clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effects of beef, independent of other red and processed meats, compared with poultry and/or fish consumption, on lipoprotein lipids. Methods: RCTs published from 1950 to 2010 were considered for inclusion. Studies were included if they reported fasting lipoprotein lipid changes after beef and poultry/fish consumption by subjects free of chronic disease. A total of 124 RCTs were identified, and 8 studies involving 406 subjects met the prespecified entry criteria and were included in the analysis. Results: Relative to the baseline diet, mean ± standard error changes (in mg/dL) after beef versus poultry/fish consumption, respectively, were -8.1 ± 2.8 vs. -6.2 ± 3.1 for total cholesterol (P =.630), -8.2 ± 4.2 vs. -8.9 ± 4.4 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P =.905), -2.3 ± 1.0 vs. -1.9 ± 0.8 for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P =.762), and -8.1 ± 3.6 vs. -12.9 ± 4.0 mg/dL for triacylglycerols (P =.367). Conclusion: Changes in the fasting lipid profile were not significantly different with beef consumption compared with those with poultry and/or fish consumption. Inclusion of lean beef in the diet increases the variety of available food choices, which may improve long-term adherence with dietary recommendations for lipid management. © 2012 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.
Miller P.E.,Exponent, Inc. |
Van Elswyk M.,Van Elswyk Consulting Inc |
Alexander D.D.,Exponent, Inc.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND Although a large body of literature has been devoted to examining the relationship between eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and blood pressure, past systematic reviews have been hampered by narrow inclusion criteria and a limited scope of analytical subgroups. In addition, no meta-analysis to date has captured the substantial volume of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 2 years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of EPA+DHA, without upper dose limits and including food sources, on blood pressure in RCTs. METHODS Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate weighted group mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the EPA+DHA group and the placebo group. Analyses were conducted for subgroups defined by key subject or study characteristics. RESULTS Seventy RCTs were included. Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA provision reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.52mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) =-2.25 to-0.79) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.99mm Hg; 95% CI =-1.54 to-0.44) in the meta-analyses of all studies combined. The strongest effects of EPA+DHA were observed among untreated hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure =-4.51mm Hg, 95% CI =-6.12 to-2.83; diastolic blood pressure =-3.05mm Hg, 95% CI =-4.35 to-1.74), although blood pressure also was lowered among normotensive subjects (systolic blood pressure =-1.25mm Hg, 95% CI =-2.05 to-0.46; diastolic blood pressure =-0.62mm Hg, 95% CI =-1.22 to-0.02). CONCLUSIONS Overall, available evidence from RCTs indicates that provision of EPA+DHA reduces systolic blood pressure, while provision of ≥2 grams reduces diastolic blood pressure. © 2014 The Author.
PubMed | Van Elswyk Consulting Inc.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2013
Studies of forage and/or grass feeding of cattle versus grain finishing have been conducted in varying regions throughout the world but generalization of these results to beef from U.S. cattle may not be appropriate. In particular, available grass/forage variety and form as well as cattle breed have a significant impact on the nutritional profile of beef. The current review summarizes the nutritional characteristics of beef as reported from the limited number of studies comparing U.S. grass/forage-fed versus grain-finished cattle and estimates the intake of key nutrients that might be expected from consumption of U.S. beef from either feeding system. In addition, many studies report changes in fatty acids solely as a percentage of total fatty acids. Since grass/forage feeding typically results in a leaner product; the current review compares the fatty acid profile of beef from grass/forage feeding to that of grain-finished cattle on a mg/100 g of meat basis.