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Castle Rock, CO, United States

Outterson K.,Boston University | Outterson K.,Royal Institute of International Affairs | Outterson K.,Preventions Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group | Powers J.H.,George Washington University | And 2 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2015

Multidrug-resistant bacterial diseases pose serious and growing threats to human health. While innovation is important to all areas of health research, it is uniquely important in antibiotics. Resistance destroys the fruit of prior research, making it necessary to constantly innovate to avoid falling back into a pre-antibiotic era. But investment is declining in antibiotics, driven by competition from older antibiotics, the cost and uncertainty of the development process, and limited reimbursement incentives. Good public health practices curb inappropriate antibiotic use, making return on investment challenging in payment systems based on sales volume. We assess the impact of recent initiatives to improve antibiotic innovation, reflecting experience with all sixty-seven new molecular entity antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration since 1980. Our analysis incorporates data and insights derived from several multistakeholder initiatives under way involving governments and the private sector on both sides of the Atlantic. We propose three specific reforms that could revitalize innovations that protect public health, while promoting long-term sustainability: increased incentives for antibiotic research and development, surveillance, and stewardship; greater targeting of incentives to high-priority public health needs, including reimbursement that is delinked from volume of drug use; and enhanced global collaboration, including a global treaty. © 2015 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

The AUDIT-C is an extensively validated screen for unhealthy alcohol use (i.e. drinking above recommended limits or alcohol use disorder), which consists of three questions about alcohol consumption. AUDIT-C scores ≥4 points for men and ≥3 for women are considered positive screens based on US validation studies that compared the AUDIT-C to "gold standard" measures of unhealthy alcohol use from independent, detailed interviews. However, results of screening--positive or negative based on AUDIT-C scores--can be inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions. For example, individuals can screen positive based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking below US recommended limits on the same AUDIT-C. Alternatively, they can screen negative based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking above US recommended limits. Such inconsistencies could complicate interpretation of screening results, but it is unclear how often they occur in practice. This study used AUDIT-C data from respondents who reported past-year drinking on one of two national US surveys: a general population survey (N = 26,610) and a Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient survey (N = 467,416). Gender-stratified analyses estimated the prevalence of AUDIT-C screen results--positive or negative screens based on the AUDIT-C score--that were inconsistent with reported drinking (above or below US recommended limits) on the same AUDIT-C. Among men who reported drinking, 13.8% and 21.1% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results based on AUDIT-C scores (positive or negative) that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions (above or below US recommended limits). Among women who reported drinking, 18.3% and 20.7% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results that were inconsistent with reported drinking. This study did not include an independent interview gold standard for unhealthy alcohol use and therefore cannot address how often observed inconsistencies represent false positive or negative screens. Up to 21% of people who drink alcohol had alcohol screening results based on the AUDIT-C score that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the same AUDIT-C. This needs to be addressed when training clinicians to use the AUDIT-C.

Cheikhyoussef A.,Value Innovation | Mapaure I.,University of Namibia | Shapi M.,University of Namibia
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2011

Local communities in Namibia possess an in-depth knowledge of the use of medicinal plants and their environment. Medicinal plants contribute significantly to the intellectual property rights of poor local households in theses local communities. This review gives an overview of the use of indigenous knowledge held by traditional healers, the uses of indigenous plants for medicinal and other purposes, medicinal preparation methods and treated diseases in different parts of Namibia, in particular the Oshikoto region. Factors threatening the existence of the medicinal plants are discussed and the gaps in the indigenous knowledge on the uses of the medicinal plants are also presented. This review strongly recommends the importance of proper and comprehensive documentation of the traditional healing methods in Namibia, which will have a high potential for sustainable development for the medicinal plants in Namibia. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Glass J.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Williams E.C.,Value Innovation | Williams E.C.,University of Washington | Bucholz K.K.,University of Washington
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2014

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is among the most stigmatized health conditions and is frequently comorbid with mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders. Theoretical frameworks have conceptualized stigma-related stress as a predictor of psychiatric disorders. We described profiles of psychiatric comorbidity among people with AUD and compared levels of perceived alcohol stigma across profiles. Methods: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a general population sample of U.S. adults with past-year DSM-5 AUD (n = 3,368) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which was collected from 2001 to 2005. Empirically derived psychiatric comorbidity profiles were established with latent class analysis, and mean levels of perceived alcohol stigma were compared across the latent classes while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and AUD severity. Results: Four classes of psychiatric comorbidity emerged within this AUD sample, including those with: (i) high comorbidity, reflecting internalizing (i.e., mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (i.e., antisocial personality and drug use disorders) disorders; (ii) externalizing comorbidity; (iii) internalizing comorbidity; and (iv) no comorbidity. Perceived alcohol stigma was significantly higher in those with internalizing comorbidity (but not those with high comorbidity) as compared to those with no comorbidity or externalizing comorbidity. Conclusions: Perceived stigma, as manifested by anticipations of social rejection and discrimination, may increase risk of internalizing psychiatric comorbidity. Alternatively, internalizing psychiatric comorbidity could sensitize affected individuals to perceive more negative attitudes toward them. Future research is needed to understand causal and bidirectional associations between alcohol stigma and psychiatric comorbidity. © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

Fukunishi Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Fukunishi Y.,Value Innovation | Nakamura H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Nakamura H.,Osaka University
Protein Science | Year: 2011

A new approach to predicting the ligand-binding sites of proteins was developed, using protein-ligand docking computation. In this method, many compounds in a random library are docked onto the whole protein surface. We assumed that the true ligand-binding site would exhibit stronger affinity to the compounds in the random library than the other sites, even if the random library did not include the ligand corresponding to the true binding site. We also assumed that the affinity of the true ligand-binding site would be correlated to the docking scores of the compounds in the random library, if the ligand-binding site was correctly predicted. We call this method the molecular-docking binding-site finding (MolSite) method. The MolSite method was applied to 89 known protein-ligand complex structures extracted from the Protein Data Bank, and it predicted the correct binding sites with about 80-99% accuracy, when only the single top-ranked site was adopted. In addition, the average docking score was weakly correlated to the experimental protein-ligand binding free energy, with a correlation coefficient of 0.44. © 2010 The Protein Society.

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