Valtakatu 26

Kemi, Finland

Valtakatu 26

Kemi, Finland

Time filter

Source Type

Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Makela M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Makela M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Watkins G.,Aalto University | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2016

The bottom ash and fly ash from the co-combustion of wood residues and peat at a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (296 MW) contained only quartz (SiO2), microcline (KAlSi3O8) and albite (NaAlSi3O8). Thus, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was not useful for clarifying the difference in the release of associated heavy metals from ash matrices. In order to assess the release of heavy metals from ashes under changing environmental conditions, they were sequentially extracted and fractionated by the BCR-procedure into acid soluble/exchangeable (CH3COOH), reducible (NH2OH-HCl) and oxidizable (H2O2/CH3COONH4) phases. The CH3COOH extractable fraction in conjunction with the total heavy metals concentrations were used to calculate the risk assessment code values for heavy metals leaching from the ash matrix. The leaching studies indicate that the heavy metals in the bottom ash and fly ash are bound to different fractions with different strengths. From the environmental and utilization perspectives, heavy metals in ashes posed different levels of environmental contamination risk. Only As in the bottom ash posed a very high risk. High risk metals were Cd in the bottom ash as well as As, Cd and Se in the fly ash. © 2016 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China.


Watkins G.,Aalto University | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Dahl O.,Aalto University | Makela M.,Aalto University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

In Finland, the new limit values of total heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), as well as the extractable heavy metal, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluoride, sulphate, and chloride concentrations for bed sand material used as an earth construction agent came into force in June 2009. The total heavy metal (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, V, Ba and Mo) concentrations in the studied bed sand material were clearly lower than the current Finnish limit values for the maximum allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent. However, the extractable concentration of Ba (24.6 mg kg -1; d.w.) in the bed sand material exceeded the limit value for covered structures (20 mg kg -1; d.w.). However, in Finland, the competent environmental authority may relax the maximum limit values up to 30% in certain circumstances. Therefore, if, the environmental authority relaxes the maximum limit value for the extractable concentration of Ba by up to 30% to the value of 26 mg kg -1 (d.w.) for covered structures, the extractable concentration of Ba (24.6 mg kg -1; d.w.) in the bed sand material is below this relaxation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Manskinen K.,Stora Enso | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste | Year: 2011

As a case study, the potential to use bottom ash and fly ash from a large-sized (120 MW) bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) at the power plant of a fluting board mill were assessed to determine their suitability for use as an earth construction agent. In addition, the extractability of heavy metals in the ashes was determined using artificial sweat and gastric fluids to assess the potential occupational risk from ash handling. Owing to the relatively high total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [23:0 mg/kg; dry weight (d.w.)], and the extractable concentrations of Mo (3:9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0:2 mg/kg; d.w.) in the fly ash, which exceed the Finnish limit values for materials used in covered earth construction (20 mg/kg; d.w. for PAHs, 0:5 mg/kg; d.w. for Mo, and 0:1 mg/kg; d.w. for Se), the utilization of this ash residue fraction in such structures requires an environmental permit. Because of the high extractability of certain heavy metals in fly ash by using an artificial gastric fluid, e.g., Ba (446 mg/kg; d.w.), V (65:6 mg/kg; d.w.), Zn (100 mg/kg; d.w.), Cu (38:3 mg/kg; d.w.), and As (36:7 mg/kg; d.w.), the careful handling of this ash residue is recommended to prevent the ingestion and penetration of ash particles across the human gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Kivilinna V.-A.,Oy Metsa Botnia Ab | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso
Chemija | Year: 2010

Tis study presents the most recent data on Na and Ca concentrations in Scots pine (Pi-nus sylvestris L.) needles sampled in bioindicator surveys carried out in 2009 at Kemi (Northern Finland), as well as at Pietarsaari (Western Finland) in 2007, at Eno (Eastern Finland) in 1994-1996 and in the Jyväskylä region (Central Finland) in 2006, which are areas with operating pulp and paper mills. Na and Ca concentrations in Scots pine needles at Kemi varied within 7-280 mg/kg (d. w.) and 1 410-5 450 mg/kg (d. w.), respectively. Na concentrations in both C and C + 1 needles at Kemi in 2009 were in good agreement with the values of 31-105 mg/kg (d. w.) and 54-151 mg/kg (d. w.), respectively, observed at Eno. Ca concentrations in C + 1 needles at Kemi were in good agreement with the values of 2 432-5 598 mg/kg (d. w.) observed at Pietarsaari in 2007 and with the values of 2 700-7 900 mg/kg (d. w.) observed in the Jyväskylä region in 2006, although the highest Ca concentrations - 7 900 mg/kg (d. w.) - in the C + 1 needles in the latter area was obviously higher than the corresponding value of 5 450 mg/kg (d. w.) observed in our study at Kemi. © 2012 Lietuvos mokslu̧ akademija.


Dahl O.,Aalto University | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Watkins G.,Aalto University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2010

The total and size fractionated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash and two fly ash fractions from a large-sized (246 MW) fluidized bed boiler were compared to Finnish statutory limit values for forest fertilizers, which came into force in March 2007. Fly ashes were sampled from the different fields (i.e. electrodes) of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) unit treating the stack gases. The bottom ash and the fly ash from the first ESP field are suitable for use a forest fertilizer. Due to the elevated As concentration (40 mg/kg; d.w.), which exceeded its Finnish limit value of 30 mg/kg (d.w.), the fly ash from the second ESP field is not suitable as a forest fertilizer alone. The results of ash sieving indicated that an As concentration of 40 mg/kg (d.w.) for particle size less than 0.125 mm for fly ash 2 from the second ESP electrode field exceeded the As limit value of 30 mg/kg (d.w.). In addition, a Pb concentration of 170 mg/kg (d.w.) for fly ash 1 from the first ESP electrode field for particle size 0.5-2.0 mm exceeded the Pb limit value of 150 mg/kg (d. w.). These two specific fractions are therefore not suitable for used as a forest fertilizer alone. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Dahl O.,Aalto University | Keski R.L.,University of Oulu
Chemija | Year: 2013

In this study, the elements in the activated sludge were fractionated between acid-soluble (CH3COOH; BCR1), reducible (NH 2OH-HCl; BCR2) and oxidisable (H2O2 + CH 3COONH4; BCR3) fractions. Only the extractable concentrations of Mn (523 mg kg-1; d. w.), Ni (5.1 mg kg -1; d. w.), S (1 650 mg kg-1; d. w.) and Ti (1.3 mg kg-1; d. w.) in the BCR1 fraction were higher than those in the BCR2 fraction. The extractable concentration of Mn in the BCR1 fraction was also higher than that (160 mg kg-1; d. w.) in the BCR2 fraction and that (135 mg kg-1; d. w.) in the BCR3 fraction. However, if we disregard elements whose concentrations were lower than the detection limits, as well as Ba and Mn, the extractable concentrations of other element in the BCR3 fraction were higher than those in the BCR1 and BCR2 fractions. The recovery values (R% values), which are the ratio of sum of BCR sequential extraction procedure to the total digestion using USEPA method 3051A, varied between 81.6% (Ni) and 96.4% (V). Due to the high R% values for certain elements we would like to point out that caution must always be exercised when activated sludge is utilized and the existing legislation must always be applied. © Lietuvos mokslu̧ akademija, 2013.


Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Makela M.,Aalto University | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Manskinen K.,Stora Enso | Dahl O.,Aalto University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2012

In Finland, the new Decree on fertilizer products came into force on 13 September 2011. In this study, the forest fertilizer properties of bottom and fly ash fractions from two large-sized (246 MW and 296 MW) power plants of pulp and paper mills incinerating biomass-based fuels (i.e. peat, bark, woodchips and sawdust) were investigated. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn) in the bottom ashes and fly ashes were clearly lower that their current Finnish limit values, and therefore, these residues are potential forest fertilizers. However, the Ca concentration in the bottom ash from a 246 MW power plant and the sum of phosphorous and potassium concentrations (P + K) in all ash fractions did not meet the requirements of the current limit values. In this study, we present the current and previous Finnish limit values for ash used as a forest fertilizer. We also present the literature values of nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the Finnish biomass-based ashes reported by the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, which registers and controls power plants that produce ash for use as fertilizer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Makela M.,Aalto University | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Watkins G.,Aalto University | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Dahl O.,Aalto University
International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation | Year: 2012

Inter-industrial utilisation of solid residues for soil amendment was investigated by combining secondary steel mill slags with residuals from a pulp and paper mill. Sample analysis included mineralogical characterisation by X-ray diffraction, relevant physicochemical properties and trace element availability by the original three-stage sequential BCR extraction procedure (CH 3COOH, NH 2OH·HCl and H 2O 2 + CH 3COONH 4) and residual fraction determination by acid digestion (USEPA 3051A). Respectively, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were determined according to USEPA method 3051A. Consequently, the alkalinity of the samples (pH values 12.1-12.2) suggests significant buffering and acid neutralisation capacity with liming effect values (34.9%-35.6%, Ca-equivalents, d.w.) comparable to commercial ground limestone. This was supported by XRD, which only revealed the existence of portlandite [Ca(OH) 2] an calcite [CaCO 3]. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were lower than the respective limit values for EU soil improvers (2006/799/EC). However, Ba and V recovery during sequential extraction (Ba: 40.1-56.0 mg·kg -1, d.w., by CH 3COOH; and V: 72.2-96.5 mg·kg -1, d.w., by NH 2OH·HCl) indicates potential phytoavailability. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Dahl O.,Aalto University | Makela M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to extract the biomass-based bottom and fly ash fractions by a three-stage fractionation method for water-soluble (H 2O), ammonium-acetate (CH3COONH4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) fractions in order to access the leaching behaviour of these residues. Except for Mo, S, Na and elements whose concentrations were lower than the detection limits, the extractable element concentrations in both ash fractions followed the order H2O


Watkins G.,Aalto University | Poykio R.,Valtakatu 26 | Nurmesniemi H.,Stora Enso | Dahll O.,Aalto University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2010

Slaker grits, an industrial residue originating from the chemical recovery process at sulfate (kraft) pulp mills, are typically disposed of to landfill in Finland. However, due to the relatively low total heavy metal and low leachable heavy metal, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, Dissolved O rganic Carbon (DOC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentrations, the residue is a potential earth construction material. This paper gives an overview of the relevant Finnish legislation on the use of industrial waste as an earth construction agent, the classification of waste into one of three classes: hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste and inert waste, as well as the broad waste policy goals under EU law that affects their management. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010.

Loading Valtakatu 26 collaborators
Loading Valtakatu 26 collaborators