Martinez D.Z.,Valoriza Agua |
Pozuelo E.C.,Valoriza Agua
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011
One of the most important aspects of the desalination projects is the environmental impact and particularly the brine discharges. For seawater projects it seems that the problem is solved or at least controlled, by means of the usual practices (previous environmental studies, previous discharge dilution, use of diffusers and other devices, location of the brine discharge and/or vigilance plans). In the case of brackish water and mainly inland, the brine discharge is a very important problem with a no clear solution. The main solutions used for these plants are: Discharge to the sewer nets (with the associated problems at the recipient WWTP); Deep well injection; Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) systems based mainly in evaporation-crystallization technologies; Blending with other discharges (e.g. wastewater); Sea discharge in coastal areas. Currently it seems that the main R&D projects in desalination are focussed about energy consumption as well as brine impact reduction. This paper will show a R&D project about innovative solutions for brine discharges. The project is focused on developing systems with less environmental impact and technologies about recovery and appreciation of salts from brines. The research is distributed in 5 different subprojects all related with brines from desalination plants: 1) Development at pilot scale of a novel system for recovery and valorization of salts from brines; 2) Study of technical and economical feasibility of zero liquid discharge systems based on evaporation-crystallization technologies for brine elimination; 3) Study about possible industrial applications of salts and other byproducts obtained from brines; 4) Study of technical and economical feasibility of deep-well injection; 5) Study of direct osmosis and other parameters over the dilution of brines in seawater and the modeling and comparison with current mathematical models. This paper will show the results obtained for each one of these sub-projects. This study involved 4 Spanish universities as well as other 3 companies lead by Sadyt-Valoriza Agua. The project includes a patent for the technology and important subsidies from the Spanish Ministries of Industry and Environment. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Garcia C.,Valoriza Agua |
Molina F.,Valoriza Agua |
Zarzo D.,Valoriza Agua
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011
This paper will show the most relevant aspects in the 7 year operation period in the management of the O&M (operation and maintenance) at a BWRO (brackish water reverse osmosis) plant at Cuevas de Almanzora, Almeria, Spain. This plant has a current capacity of water production of 25,000 m3/d and it was built to supplying agricultural consumers in the proximity of the plant. Cuevas de Almanzora BWRO plant is an exceptional plant in many aspects: 1) It is a plant working with brackish water but it was designed to be able to working with seawater with regards to materials, qualities and pressures (except the high pressure pump), and it could even be converted easily into a seawater plant; 2) Extensive hydrogeological studies have been completed allowing the control of aquifer exploitation and water extraction in the seawater-brackish water interface; 3) Water is distributed to different agricultural users with different water quality requirements (it produces "a la carte" water); 4) RO trains include inter stage energy recovery device to improve the hydraulic equilibrium between stages and reducing the energy consumption. This paper will present the following aspects: BWRO plant description; Results of the aquifer hydrogeological studies for the determination of saline intrusion. Conclusions and operation guidelines; Operation of the plant, results, operational problems arising from increasing salinity and specifically from sulphates; Description of the planned changes at the plant to allowing a possible future conversion into an SWRO plant; O&M costs. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Zarzo D.,Valoriza Agua |
Campos E.,Valoriza Agua |
Terrero P.,Valoriza Agua
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013
Desalination in Spain has a long story. From the early 60s many installations for drinking water supply were built, mainly in the Canary Islands. Soon it was assumed that other users would need water supply at competitive prices. Agriculture was one of them. The leap from the islands to mainland was in the 90s, when there was a substantial water shortage. In this decade, more than 200 installations were built for this application, mainly treating brackish water. More recently, the installation of large capacity plants from Spanish government programme"AGUA" would mean the end of small plants for agriculture although a discussion about the price for desalinated water arose between the government and the agricultural users. In this paper, we will describe the Spanish experience in desalination for agriculture from an historic point of view. We will also discuss the economic aspects such as the price of water obtained from desalination plants compared with other sources such as superficial or reused water as well as the percentage of water costs in agriculture production and other beneficial aspects such as increased production. With the experience gained for more than 17 years and 60 different size installations built, this paper will be illustrated with some examples where farmers have built their own desalination plants. Another interesting aspect will be to show how to do the planning for an irrigation system for agriculture based on desalination. © 2013 Desalination Publications.