Nguyen T.T.H.,VetAgro Sup |
Nguyen T.T.H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Nguyen T.T.H.,Agrocampus Ouest |
van der Werf H.M.G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2012
Four complete beef-production systems consisting each of two stages were compared. The systems were formed by combining two diets for the cow-calf herd with finishing heifers stage - St (Standard) and O3 (maximising omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) using wrapped grass silage) - with four diets for the bull-fattening herd stage - SM (silage maize starch), SML (silage maize starch plus linseed, rich in omega-3 FAs), FC (fibre-based concentrate), and SCL (starch-based concentrate plus linseed): St-SM, O3-SML, St-FC and O3-SCL. Life Cycle Assessments applied to these systems (from cradle to farm gate for a one-year period) estimated that their environmental impacts, per kg of carcass mass, ranged from 27.0 to 27.9kg CO2 equivalents (eq), 64.8-73.4MJ, 94-98g PO4 3- eq, 168-173g SO2 eq, 47-48m2year for climate change (CC, not including effect of land use and land-use change, LULUC), cumulative energy demand (CED), eutrophication potential, acidification potential and land occupation, respectively. Consideration of LULUC decreased CC from 8 to 10%. Minor impact differences between these systems were observed, except for CED of St-FC, mainly because more energy was needed to dehydrate beet pulp and lucerne. CC of O3-SCL was 3% lower than CC of St-SM. Most of the environmental impacts of beef-production systems originated from the cow-calf herd with finishing heifers (73-97%), which indicates that research on the reduction of environmental impacts of this type of beef-production system should focus on this herd. For the cow-calf herd with finishing heifers, comparison of several allocation methods revealed that allocation method strongly affected the impacts per kg of carcass mass of the breeding bull and finished cull cows and, to a much lesser extent, those of fattened bulls and finished heifers. Consideration of both products (several animal types) and the ecosystem services supplied by these systems seems a promising perspective. This concept needs to be discussed and developed as an approach to consider the multi-functionality of farming systems. © 2012. Source
Pillin I.,University of Southern Brittany |
Kervoelen A.,University of Southern Brittany |
Bourmaud A.,University of Southern Brittany |
Goimard J.,Valorex |
And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011
Many works deal with the mechanical properties of flax fibers cultivated for textile applications and today used for the reinforcement of polymers. Nevertheless, quantities of oleaginous flax fiber are obtained each year and not promoted. The aim of this work is to study the mechanical properties of single linseed flax fiber as a function of variety, culture year, dew-retting degree and agronomic factors. Five varieties of oleaginous flax have been characterized by tensile tests on elementary fibers and compared to four varieties of textile flax. These tensile experiments have been carried out on with the same equipment, experimental protocol and environmental conditions. The results show that interesting mechanical properties were obtained with the oleaginous variety and are close of those of textile varieties, such as Agatha or Electra. Considering the diameters and specific properties of these oleaginous fibers, we evidenced that they are good candidates for the substitution of glass fibers in composite materials. To increase the development of flax fibers, it is important to have a better control of the spread of their mechanical properties. This point could be observed with the Everest variety cultivated for 4 years and no conclusion could be made. We have evidenced that the retting degree has no influence on the diameters and mechanical properties of the fibers; the same conclusion is obtained with agronomic factors such as seeding rate and plant height. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source
Legrand P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Schmitt B.,CERN |
Mourot J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Catheline D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 2 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2010
Based on mechanistic and epidemiological data, we raise the question of the relationship between qualitative dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) changes and increase in obesity. In this double-blind trial, we studied the effects on 160 overweight volunteers (body mass index, BMI >30) of a 90 days experimental diet rich principally in animal fat with a low PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio but a low n-6/n-3 ratio, using animal products obtained from linseed-fed animals. The control diet provided less animal fat, a higher PUFA/SFA ratio and a higher n-6/n-3 ratio. Both diets excluded seafood. In the experimental group, we observed a significant increase in red blood cell (RBC) α-linolenic acid content and a slight increase in EPA and DHA derivatives, while in the control group we observed a significant reduction in EPA and DHA content. Between groups now, the difference in the three n-3 fatty acids changes in RBC was significant. This demonstrates that plasma EPA and DHA levels can be maintained without fish if products from linseed-fed animals are used. During the diets, we noted a significant reduction in weight, BMI and hip circumference within both groups of volunteers. However, no significant difference was observed between the control group and the experimental group. Interestingly, 150 days after the end of the trial (i.e., day 240), we noted a significant weight gain in the control group, whereas no significant weight gain was observed in the experimental group. This was also observed for the BMI and hip circumference. Moreover, significant differences in BMI (P < 0.05) and weight (P = 0.05) appeared between the two groups, showing in both cases a smaller increase in the experimental group. During the 90 days trial, we did not observe any differences between groups in terms of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or triglycerides, suggesting that the saturate content and the P/S ratio are not as important as the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid composition. © 2009 AOCS. Source
Valorex | Date: 2013-07-22
Flour and cereal preparations. Foodstuffs for animals, plants and seeds for human and animal consumption, plant seeds.
Milk and dairy products; eggs; pork, poultry meat, beef, veal, mutton; proteins for human consumption. Pasta; vegetable products for human consumption (bread, cookies, biscuits, rusks, cereals, sandwiches, prepared dishes..). Foodstuffs for animals, fortifying foodstuffs for animals; food for pets, for menagerie animals; grains and seeds; grains for animal consumption.