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El Bachiri K.,VAM Drilling | Machecourt P.,VAM Drilling | Mauries S.,Vallourec Research Center
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Russian Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Technical Conference and Exhibition 2012 | Year: 2012

Extreme low temperature and hostile drilling environments such as the "Arctic" are driving the industry to adapt their drilling programs to new challenges and to develop fit-for-purpose drilling string solutions. Proprietary arctic grades already exist for temperatures as low as -40°C. However, for high-strength drill pipe it is necessary to meet the drilling loads associated to temperatures conditions as low as -60°C. Arctic drilling is one of the most vivid examples of how the oil and gas industry is called upon to adapt to ever-increasing demand for energy resources. This evolution is driving the industry to develop suitable drill string solutions. VAM Drilling is at the forefront of these developments for these types of environments. The need for such drill pipe is derived from well topology constrains in active regions such as Russia, Eastern Europe, CIS, Alaska and Canadian. The underlying issues are not uniquely related to the service temperature of these tubulars but rather to the high risks associated with susceptible damages during ground transportation and surface handling and especially in "arctic" fields (permafrost). Controlling critical manufacturing parameters is a key factor to reach top of the range products. Steel microstructure, chemical composition, cleanliness and heat treatment process control are critical to achieve high impact toughness on high strength drill pipe. Controlling yield strength and hardness are instrumental to achieve the established product performance and allowing drilling contractors and operators to safety and efficiently drill in these environments. The paper presents the appropriate steel chemistries and manufacturing controlled processes required to meet safe operating industry standards and performance-driven drilling practices. This includes a range of parameters to be considered by managers and drilling engineers involved with specifications when planning wells and designing drilling products for low temperature environments. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Horstemeier M.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Bosch C.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Orlans B.,Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes | Delattre L.,Vallourec Research Center
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2010

Susceptibility of steels for OCTG to brittle cracking (sulfide stress cracking, SSC) is most frequently evaluated by NACE TM0177 Method A, which covers the testing of metals subjected to tensile stresses for resistance to cracking failure in low-pH aqueous environments containing H 2S. As the NACE tensile test is a long term test which successfully qualifies a material not before 720 hours test duration, this test is difficult to apply as a quick ranking tool, although this test is mandatory for the final qualification of a material for certain test conditions. On the other hand, the CERT (Constant Extension Rate Test), which is also known as SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Test) when used for corrosion resistant alloys under elevated pressure and temperature, has been used in the past as a standardized method for screening CRA materials for use in oilfield production environments. In the present investigation different CERT test series have been performed on 110, 125 and 140 ksi grade materials for OCTG to validate the capability of the CERT for ranking materials regarding their susceptibility to SSC. Test results were evaluated using different ductility parameters and time-to-failure ratios which provide the comparison to NACE A tensile test data. Suitable test conditions (mildly sour environment with 3 % H 2S in CO 2 at pH 4.5) have been identified for successful ranking HSLA steels with regard to SSC performance. The correlation of NACE A test results with the plastic elongation ratio EPR from CERT was clearly shown for different chemical composition having similar yield strength as well as for same chemistry subjected to different heat treatments. © 2010 by NACE International.

Bendick W.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Cipolla L.,Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A | Gabrel J.,Vallourec Research Center | Hald J.,Technical University of Denmark
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping | Year: 2010

A first assessment of creep rupture strength for steel grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (Grade 91) was performed by ECCC in 1995. The results were included in the European standard EN 10216. Due to a significant increase of test data and test duration it was decided in 2005 to make a re-assessment of the extended database. Different procedures have been used independently by different assessors. The method with the best overall fit of the data set has found to be the ISO CRD method. This is characterized by a two steps procedure: in the first step the mean isotherms are evaluated from the test data, afterwards the evaluated isotherms are used for averaging by a Manson-Haferd master-curve. The results have been chosen as the basis to specify long term creep rupture strength values in a new ECCC data sheet for X10CrMoVNb9-1 (Grade 91). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Spooner S.,University of Warwick | Assis A.N.,Vallourec Research Center | Assis A.N.,Carnegie Mellon University | Warnett J.,University of Warwick | And 3 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science | Year: 2016

Small Fe-based droplets have been heated to a molten phase suspended within a slag medium to replicate a partial environment within the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). The confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) has been used as a heating platform to interrogate the effect of impurities and their transfer across the metal/slag interface, on the emulsification of the droplet into the slag medium. The samples were then examined through X-ray computer tomography (XCT) giving the mapping of emulsion dispersion in 3D space, calculating the changing of interfacial area between the two materials, and changes of material volume due to material transfer between metal and slag. Null experiments to rule out thermal gradients being the cause of emulsification have been conducted as well as replication of the previously reported study by Assis et al.[1] which has given insights into the mechanism of emulsification. Finally chemical analysis was conducted to discover the transfer of oxygen to be the cause of emulsification, leading to a new study of a system with undergoing oxygen equilibration. © 2016 The Author(s)

Bosch C.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Wanzenberg E.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Marchebois H.,Vallourec Research Center | Delattre L.,Vallourec Research Center | And 3 more authors.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2010

The effect of testing environment on DCB (Double Cantilever Beam according to NACE TM0177-2005 method D) performance of C110 material was evaluated, following the introduction in ballots on a mild sour environment in the frame of C110 grade standardization into API spec 5CT / ISO 11960. Various products of C110 material were tested. The DCB tests were performed on the same materials in NACE TM0177 test solution A saturated by 100% H2S gas (standard environment) with an arm displacement of 0.51 mm as well as in a buffered test solution saturated by 7% H2S in a carrier of nitrogen gas (mild environment). The arm displacement aimed for was 0.89 mm. In both environments, the resulting KIssc values were in the expected range. However, the range between low and high KIssc values obtained in the mild environment was much higher than for the tests performed in TM0177 test solution A. Increase in the test duration for mild sour environment resulted in decreasing KIssc, which indicates that a test duration of two weeks might not be sufficient to reach the equilibrium of load and crack length. These results, as well as compliance analyses of the various DCB tests, are discussed in detail. Additional influencing factors such as effects of arm displacement and fatigue pre-cracking are also addressed. © 2010 by NACE International.

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