Sioux Falls, ND, United States

Valley City State University
Sioux Falls, ND, United States

Valley City State University is an institution of higher learning in Valley City, North Dakota, United States, part of the eleven-member North Dakota University System. Founded in 1890 as a territorial normal school, VCSU offers over 80 undergraduate programs in Business, Information Technology, Communication Arts, Social Science, Education, Psychology, Fine Arts, Health, Physical Education, Math, and Science. An online Master of Education degree program is also available.The campus has an average annual attendance of approximately 9,000. Since 1996, VCSU has been a "laptop" campus by issuing laptop computers to full-time students. The cost of the laptops are part of the university's technology fee which also covers other educational technology enhancements such as campus-wide wireless network access and smart classrooms. Full-Time Enrollment: 695 students. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 27, 2017
Site:, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has announced its list of the most affordable colleges and universities in the U.S. for 2017. 50 four-year schools were recognized, with Buena Vista University, Judson College, Florida Institute of Technology, Concordia University—Wisconsin and Southwestern College taking the top five spots. Of the 50 two-year schools that were also honored, East Mississippi Community College, Frank Philips College, Western Wyoming Community College, Laramie County Community College and Western Oklahoma State College were the top five. A list of all 100 schools is included below. “For students who want the flexibility of an online education at an affordable price point, the colleges and universities on our list are the best in the U.S,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of “These schools provide the maximum value when it comes to cost, quality and career resources for students.” To be included on the “Most Affordable” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also evaluated on additional data points such as the number and variety of degree programs offered, employment services, post-college earnings of alumni, academic resources, financial aid availability and more. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the “Most Affordable Online Colleges” list, visit: The Most Affordable Online Four-Year Colleges in the U.S. for 2017 include: Amridge University Baker University Bay Path University Belhaven University Brenau University Briar Cliff University Buena Vista University Canisius College Chaminade University of Honolulu Colorado Christian University Concordia University-Nebraska Concordia University-Wisconsin Davenport University DeSales University Dickinson State University Drexel University Duquesne University Florida Institute of Technology Franklin Pierce University Gardner-Webb University Graceland University-Lamoni Gwynedd Mercy University Hampton University Harvard University Illinois Institute of Technology Judson College LeTourneau University Malone University McKendree University Murray State University Newman University North Carolina Central University Norwich University Oklahoma State University-Main Campus Prescott College Quincy University Saint Joseph's College of Maine Saint Joseph's University Saint Leo University Siena Heights University Southwestern College Spring Arbor University University of Idaho University of Southern Mississippi University of St Francis University of the Cumberlands University of the Incarnate Word Valley City State University Viterbo University Webster University The Most Affordable Online Two-Year Colleges in the U.S. for 2017 include: Allen County Community College Arizona Western College Barton County Community College Casper College Central Wyoming College Cochise College Colorado Northwestern Community College Cowley County Community College Crowder College Dakota College at Bottineau East Mississippi Community College Eastern New Mexico University - Roswell Campus Eastern Wyoming College Frank Phillips College GateWay Community College Grayson College Holmes Community College Hutchinson Community College Kansas City Kansas Community College Laramie County Community College Madisonville Community College Maysville Community and Technical College Mesa Community College Metropolitan Community College Mount Wachusett Community College Navarro College New Mexico Junior College North Arkansas College Northeast Community College Northwest Mississippi Community College Odessa College Ozarka College Panola College Pitt Community College Seward County Community College and Area Technical School Sheridan College Sinclair College Southwestern Community College Southwestern Oregon Community College State Fair Community College Trinity Valley Community College Truckee Meadows Community College Tulsa Community College Tyler Junior College Western Nebraska Community College Western Oklahoma State College Western Texas College Western Wyoming Community College Williston State College Yavapai College ### About Us: was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

Perrin E.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Rothman R.L.,Internal Medicine | Sanders L.M.,Stanford University | Eden S.K.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To examine parental reports of feeding and activity behaviors in a cohort of parents of 2-month-olds and how they differ by race/ ethnicity. METHODS: Parents participating in Greenlight, a cluster, randomized trial of obesity prevention at 4 health centers, were queried at enrollment about feeding and activity behaviors thought to increase obesity risk. Unadjusted associations between race/ethnicity and the outcomes of interest were performed by using Pearson x2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted analyses were performed by using proportional odds logistic regressions. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-three parents (50% Hispanic, 27% black, 18% white; 86% Medicaid) were enrolled. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45%) as exclusive breastfeeding (19%); 12% had already introduced solid food; 43% put infants to bed with bottles; 23% propped bottles; 20% always fed when the infant cried; 38% always tried to get children to finish milk; 90% were exposed to television (mean, 346 minutes/day); 50% reported active television watching (mean, 25 minutes/day); and 66% did not meet "tummy time" recommendations. Compared with white parents, black parents were more likely to put children to bed with a bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.97, P , .004; bottle propping, aOR = 3.1, P , .001), and report more television watching (aOR = 1.6, P = .034). Hispanic parents were more likely than white parents to encourage children to finish feeding (aOR = 1.9, P = .007), bottle propping (aOR = 2.5, P = .009), and report less tummy time (aOR = 0.6, P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors thought to relate to later obesity were highly prevalent in this large, diverse sample and varied by race/ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally-adapted interventions.

Iqbal R.,Missouri State University | Scott M.,Missouri State University | Cleveland T.,Valley City State University
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2016

As revenues from Internet advertising continue to grow, advertisers seek popular news websites for placing advertisements in an effort to maximize profits. An important measure of how well a website is performing or how attractive it is to the advertisers is how engaged the web visitors are with that website. During our background study, we explored articles covering metrics to measure online user activity and engagement. However, none of those proposed techniques address the need for advertisers and/or website owners to detect tab/application switching or to find the actual away time from a particular website. To address this need, in this paper, we propose two new metrics, focus ratio and active ratio, along with a proof of concept tool to track web visitor engagement more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, focus ratio and active ratio have not been proposed in the literature within the context of web analytics and visitor engagement.

Keasler S.J.,University of Minnesota | Keasler S.J.,Valley City State University | Siepmann J.I.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Simulations are used to investigate the vapor-to-liquid nucleation of water for several different force fields at various sets of physical conditions. The nucleation free energy barrier is found to be extremely sensitive to the force field at the same absolute conditions. However, when the results are compared at the same supersaturation and reduced temperature or the same metastability parameter and reduced temperature, then the differences in the nucleation free energies of the different models are dramatically reduced. This finding suggests that comparisons of experimental data and computational predictions are most meaningful at the same relative conditions and emphasizes the importance of knowing the phase diagram of a given computational model, but such information is usually not available for models where the interaction energy is determined directly from electronic structure calculations. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Kim H.,Louisiana State University | Kim H.,Chungnam National University | Keasler S.J.,Louisiana State University | Keasler S.J.,Valley City State University | Chen B.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

A novel simulation approach was developed and applied to the study of hydrophobic interactions for a small hydrophobic solute pair under confinement. In this method, the aggregation-volume-bias Monte Carlo algorithm, developed originally for nucleation studies, is used to evaluate the association free energy with water molecules for a methane pair through the gradual addition of water molecules into a nanometer-sized sphere. Through a thermodynamic cycle, this method allows for a convenient examination of the free energy difference between two different solvated configurations without sampling any of the configurations in between. The potential of mean force (PMF) for a methane pair under confinement obtained from this method reveals that the stability of the contact pair configuration can be enhanced compared to that in bulk water, which is in agreement with previous studies. Also, constraining the center of this methane pair at the center of this confined volume yields a PMF with a metastable solvent separated configuration, resembling more closely the PMF from the bulk-phase system compared to previous studies in which this solvent-separated minimum was found to be completely absent. A combination with histogram reweighting enables the study of this association behavior at different thermodynamic conditions without additional simulations. From a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis, it is evident that such hydrophobic association, known to be entropically driven in the bulk-phase system at ambient conditions, is entropically favorable only when a suitable range of solvent molecules is added to the confined system. More importantly, the energetic contributions are a favorable factor that explains the enhanced hydrophobic association toward the high number of solvent molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Bilski J.,Valley City State University | Mclean K.,Valley City State University | McLean E.,Valley City State University
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A vegetative cover is a remedial technique utilized on coal FA landfills for soil stabilization and for the physical and chemical immobilization of contaminants. Many herbaceous plants, primarily grasses which exhibit rapid growth, are moderately resistant to environmental stress, and are therefore often used as cover crops in environmental restoration and remediation projects. However, there is a great concern, that plants planted or voluntarily growing on media with high content of FA may absorb toxic amounts of Se and/or heavy metals. If such plants are ingested, it may result in toxicity to animals and humans. Despite these objections, the utilization of FA as a growth medium for plants is an attractive alternative for disposal of FA in landfills. We hypothesized that selected plants will grow in media containing FA and/or bottom ash (BA) from several sources. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of growth media containing FA and/or BA on several cereal crop plants growth including germination, seedlings growth and heavy metals, B and Se accumulation in the seedlings. Two selected coal FA, from Montana semi-bituminous coal and from North Dakota lignite alone or in combination with BA from Montana semi-bituminous coal have been tested as plant growth media (growth media are listed in Table below) for the following plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum), regreen; a hybrid between wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale; a hybrid between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale). The concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl, and V in growth media was determined, and the concentrations of the same elements in young plants was analyzed. Chemical analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrophotometry (3). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Statistical Analysis System. All plant species tested in our experiments showed significant adaptability to the growth on FA based media, with no excessive accumulation of tested elements in plant seedlings. There were noticeable differences in seedlings growth, depending on the type and source of coal ash used. It suggests the necessity to perform pre-plantation tests in case of planning to provide green cover over FA piles. Large scale implementation of plant cover over coal ash landfills will require to conduct in-depth and large scale research.

Hagen S.L.,Valley City State University | Cremaschi A.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Himonides C.S.,University of London
Journal of Music, Technology and Education | Year: 2012

Collegiate class piano courses demand sight-reading competencies and many pedagogical approaches exist, but there is relatively little information regarding the use of computerized settings for practice of this skill in environments that seek to guide the eye in learning to sight-read piano music. This study followed a series of examinations of computerized eye guides including the sweep, the highlighted measure, and the note-to-note guides in learning to sight-read. Four groups of randomly placed college-level class piano students (N=69) practiced sight-reading for six weeks, in fifteen-minute sessions, in one of four environments: Finale Performance Assessment (sweep) (n=20), Home Concert Xtreme (highlighted measure) (n=18), Flash animation (note-to-note highlight) (n=16), and a control group using paper and a metronome (n=15). All environments contained a metronomic click, but no additional sound reinforcement. Results indicated that all groups significantly improved, but no significant differences were found among the groups. Pedagogical implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research. © 2012 Intellect Ltd Article. English language.

Ewen H.H.,University of Georgia | Chahal J.K.,University of Kentucky | Fenster E.S.,Valley City State University
Research in Gerontological Nursing | Year: 2015

The current study investigated biopsychosocial resilience in an older adult caregiver. A case study was selected for in-depth exploration of resilience in caregiving identified through biopsychosocial (i.e., salivary cortisol) methods. An exemplar of a woman caring for an adult child dying from a genetic disease is presented in the context of multiple stressors. Significant stress was found to be buffered by cognitive reframing and acceptance of interpersonal limits. Early experiences in caregiving for others with terminal illnesses provided a frame of reference, and difficult family dynamics added a layer of complexity. During periods identified as stressful, cortisol levels rose outside of normal bounds. The study implications are that mixed-methods (i.e., biopsychosocial) studies yield important results on individual differences within similar contexts. © SLACK Incorporated.

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