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Sioux Falls, ND, United States

Valley City State University is an institution of higher learning in Valley City, North Dakota, United States, part of the eleven-member North Dakota University System. Founded in 1890 as a territorial normal school, VCSU offers over 80 undergraduate programs in Business, Information Technology, Communication Arts, Social Science, Education, Psychology, Fine Arts, Health, Physical Education, Math, and Science. An online Master of Education degree program is also available.The campus has an average annual attendance of approximately 9,000. Since 1996, VCSU has been a "laptop" campus by issuing laptop computers to full-time students. The cost of the laptops are part of the university's technology fee which also covers other educational technology enhancements such as campus-wide wireless network access and smart classrooms. Full-Time Enrollment: 695 students. Wikipedia.


Perrin E.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Rothman R.L.,Internal Medicine | Sanders L.M.,Stanford University | Eden S.K.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To examine parental reports of feeding and activity behaviors in a cohort of parents of 2-month-olds and how they differ by race/ ethnicity. METHODS: Parents participating in Greenlight, a cluster, randomized trial of obesity prevention at 4 health centers, were queried at enrollment about feeding and activity behaviors thought to increase obesity risk. Unadjusted associations between race/ethnicity and the outcomes of interest were performed by using Pearson x2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted analyses were performed by using proportional odds logistic regressions. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-three parents (50% Hispanic, 27% black, 18% white; 86% Medicaid) were enrolled. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45%) as exclusive breastfeeding (19%); 12% had already introduced solid food; 43% put infants to bed with bottles; 23% propped bottles; 20% always fed when the infant cried; 38% always tried to get children to finish milk; 90% were exposed to television (mean, 346 minutes/day); 50% reported active television watching (mean, 25 minutes/day); and 66% did not meet "tummy time" recommendations. Compared with white parents, black parents were more likely to put children to bed with a bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.97, P , .004; bottle propping, aOR = 3.1, P , .001), and report more television watching (aOR = 1.6, P = .034). Hispanic parents were more likely than white parents to encourage children to finish feeding (aOR = 1.9, P = .007), bottle propping (aOR = 2.5, P = .009), and report less tummy time (aOR = 0.6, P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors thought to relate to later obesity were highly prevalent in this large, diverse sample and varied by race/ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally-adapted interventions. Source


Keasler S.J.,University of Minnesota | Keasler S.J.,Valley City State University | Siepmann J.I.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Simulations are used to investigate the vapor-to-liquid nucleation of water for several different force fields at various sets of physical conditions. The nucleation free energy barrier is found to be extremely sensitive to the force field at the same absolute conditions. However, when the results are compared at the same supersaturation and reduced temperature or the same metastability parameter and reduced temperature, then the differences in the nucleation free energies of the different models are dramatically reduced. This finding suggests that comparisons of experimental data and computational predictions are most meaningful at the same relative conditions and emphasizes the importance of knowing the phase diagram of a given computational model, but such information is usually not available for models where the interaction energy is determined directly from electronic structure calculations. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source


Kim H.,Louisiana State University | Kim H.,Chungnam National University | Keasler S.J.,Louisiana State University | Keasler S.J.,Valley City State University | Chen B.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

A novel simulation approach was developed and applied to the study of hydrophobic interactions for a small hydrophobic solute pair under confinement. In this method, the aggregation-volume-bias Monte Carlo algorithm, developed originally for nucleation studies, is used to evaluate the association free energy with water molecules for a methane pair through the gradual addition of water molecules into a nanometer-sized sphere. Through a thermodynamic cycle, this method allows for a convenient examination of the free energy difference between two different solvated configurations without sampling any of the configurations in between. The potential of mean force (PMF) for a methane pair under confinement obtained from this method reveals that the stability of the contact pair configuration can be enhanced compared to that in bulk water, which is in agreement with previous studies. Also, constraining the center of this methane pair at the center of this confined volume yields a PMF with a metastable solvent separated configuration, resembling more closely the PMF from the bulk-phase system compared to previous studies in which this solvent-separated minimum was found to be completely absent. A combination with histogram reweighting enables the study of this association behavior at different thermodynamic conditions without additional simulations. From a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis, it is evident that such hydrophobic association, known to be entropically driven in the bulk-phase system at ambient conditions, is entropically favorable only when a suitable range of solvent molecules is added to the confined system. More importantly, the energetic contributions are a favorable factor that explains the enhanced hydrophobic association toward the high number of solvent molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Ewen H.H.,University of Georgia | Chahal J.K.,University of Kentucky | Fenster E.S.,Valley City State University
Research in Gerontological Nursing | Year: 2015

The current study investigated biopsychosocial resilience in an older adult caregiver. A case study was selected for in-depth exploration of resilience in caregiving identified through biopsychosocial (i.e., salivary cortisol) methods. An exemplar of a woman caring for an adult child dying from a genetic disease is presented in the context of multiple stressors. Significant stress was found to be buffered by cognitive reframing and acceptance of interpersonal limits. Early experiences in caregiving for others with terminal illnesses provided a frame of reference, and difficult family dynamics added a layer of complexity. During periods identified as stressful, cortisol levels rose outside of normal bounds. The study implications are that mixed-methods (i.e., biopsychosocial) studies yield important results on individual differences within similar contexts. © SLACK Incorporated. Source


Hagen S.L.,Valley City State University | Cremaschi A.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Himonides C.S.,University of London
Journal of Music, Technology and Education | Year: 2012

Collegiate class piano courses demand sight-reading competencies and many pedagogical approaches exist, but there is relatively little information regarding the use of computerized settings for practice of this skill in environments that seek to guide the eye in learning to sight-read piano music. This study followed a series of examinations of computerized eye guides including the sweep, the highlighted measure, and the note-to-note guides in learning to sight-read. Four groups of randomly placed college-level class piano students (N=69) practiced sight-reading for six weeks, in fifteen-minute sessions, in one of four environments: Finale Performance Assessment (sweep) (n=20), Home Concert Xtreme (highlighted measure) (n=18), Flash animation (note-to-note highlight) (n=16), and a control group using paper and a metronome (n=15). All environments contained a metronomic click, but no additional sound reinforcement. Results indicated that all groups significantly improved, but no significant differences were found among the groups. Pedagogical implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research. © 2012 Intellect Ltd Article. English language. Source

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