Baselga J.,Harvard University |
Cortes J.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Kim S.-B.,University of Ulsan |
Im S.-A.,Seoul National University |
And 10 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
Background: The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves the outcome in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, most cases of advanced disease eventually progress. Pertuzumab, an anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor dimerization, has a mechanism of action that is complementary to that of trastuzumab, and combination therapy with the two antibodies has shown promising activity and an acceptable safety profile in phase 2 studies involving patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods: We randomly assigned 808 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer to receive placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel (control group) or pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel (pertuzumab group) as first-line treatment until the time of disease progression or the development of toxic effects that could not be effectively managed. The primary end point was independently assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, progressionfree survival as assessed by the investigator, the objective response rate, and safety. Results: The median progression-free survival was 12.4 months in the control group, as compared with 18.5 months in the pertuzumab group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.75; P<0.001). The interim analysis of overall survival showed a strong trend in favor of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel. The safety profile was generally similar in the two groups, with no increase in left ventricular systolic dysfunction; the rates of febrile neutropenia and diarrhea of grade 3 or above were higher in the pertuzumab group than in the control group. Conclusions: The combination of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel, as compared with placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel, when used as first-line treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, significantly prolonged progression-free survival, with no increase in cardiac toxic effects. (Funded by F. Hoffmann - La Roche/Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00567190.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Anderson W.F.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Rosenberg P.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Prat A.,Vall DHebron Institute of Oncology |
Perou C.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Sherman M.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, divisible into a variable number of clinical subtypes. A fundamental question is how many etiological classes underlie the clinical spectrum of breast cancer? An etiological subtype reflects a grouping with a common set of causes, whereas a clinical subtype represents a grouping with similar prognosis and/or prediction. Herein, we review the evidence for breast cancer etiological heterogeneity. We then evaluate the etiological evidence with mRNA profiling data. A bimodal age distribution at diagnosis with peak frequencies near ages 50 and 70 years is a fundamental characteristic of breast cancer for important tumor features, clinical characteristics, risk factor profiles, and molecular subtypes. The bimodal peak frequencies at diagnosis divide breast cancer overall into a "mixture" of two main components in varying proportions in different cancer populations. The first breast cancer tends to arise early in life with modal age-atdiagnosis near 50 years and generally behaves aggressively. The second breast cancer occurs later in life with modal age near 70 years and usually portends a more indolent clinical course. These epidemiological and molecular data are consistent with a two-component mixture model and compatible with a hierarchal view of breast cancers arising from two main cell types of origin. Notwithstanding the potential added value of more detailed categorizations for personalized breast cancer treatment, we suggest that the development of better criteria to identify the two proposed etiologic classes would advance breast cancer research and prevention. © 2014 Published by Oxford University Press.
Andre F.,Institute Gustave Roussy |
Cortes J.,Vall Dhebron Institute Of Oncology
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2015
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is involved in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Given its role in the activation of critical signaling pathways, aberrant FGFR signaling has been implicated in multiple cancer types. A comprehensive search of PubMed and congress abstracts was conducted to identify reports on FGFR pathway components in breast cancer. In breast cancers, FGFR1 and FGFR4 gene amplification and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGFR2 and FGFR4 have been detected. Commonly, these FGFR aberrations and gene amplifications lead to increased FGFR signaling and have been linked with poor prognosis and resistance to breast cancer treatments. Here, we review the role of FGFR signaling and the impact of FGFR genetic amplifications/aberrations on breast tumors. In addition, we summarize the most recent preclinical and clinical data on FGFR-targeted therapies in breast cancer. Finally, we highlight the ongoing clinical trials of the FGFR-targeted agents dovitinib, AZD4547, lucitanib, BGJ398, and JNJ-42756493, which are selected for patients with FGFR pathway-amplified breast cancer. Aberrant FGFR pathway amplification may drive some breast cancers. Inhibition of FGFR signaling is being explored in the clinic, and data from these trials may refine our ability to select patients who would best respond to these treatments. © 2015, The Author(s).
Rivas M.A.,CONICET |
Rivas M.A.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Venturutti L.,CONICET |
Huang Y.-W.,Ohio State University |
And 3 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2012
Introduction: Experimental and clinical evidence points to a critical role of progesterone and the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) in controlling mammary gland tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of progesterone action in breast cancer still remain elusive. On the other hand, micro RNAs (miRNAs) are short ribonucleic acids which have also been found to play a pivotal role in cancer pathogenesis. The role of miRNA in progestin-induced breast cancer is poorly explored. In this study we explored progestin modulation of miRNA expression in mammary tumorigenesis.Methods: We performed a genome-wide study to explore progestin-mediated regulation of miRNA expression in breast cancer. miR-16 expression was studied by RT-qPCR in cancer cell lines with silenced PR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) or c-Myc, treated or not with progestins. Breast cancer cells were transfected with the precursor of miR-16 and proliferation assays, Western blots or in vivo experiments were performed. Target genes of miR-16 were searched through a bioinformatical approach, and the study was focused on cyclin E. Reporter gene assays were performed to confirm that cyclin E 3'UTR is a direct target of miR-16.Results: We found that nine miRNAs were upregulated and seven were downregulated by progestin in mammary tumor cells. miR-16, whose function as a tumor suppressor in leukemia has already been shown, was identified as one of the downregulated miRNAs in murine and human breast cancer cells. Progestin induced a decrease in miR-16 levels via the classical PR and through a hierarchical interplay between Stat3 and the oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc. A search for miR-16 targets showed that the CCNE1 gene, encoding the cell cycle regulator cyclin E, contains conserved putative miR-16 target sites in its mRNA 3' UTR region. We found that, similar to the molecular mechanism underlying progestin-modulated miR-16 expression, Stat3 and c-Myc participated in the induction of cyclin E expression by progestin. Moreover, overexpression of miR-16 abrogated the ability of progestin to induce cyclin E upregulation, revealing that cyclin E is a novel target of miR-16 in breast cancer. Overexpression of miR-16 also inhibited progestin-induced breast tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating for the first time, a role for miR-16 as a tumor suppressor in mammary tumorigenesis. We also found that the ErbB ligand heregulin (HRG) downregulated the expression of miR-16, which then participates in the proliferative activity of HRG in breast tumor cells.Conclusions: In this study, we reveal the first progestin-regulated miRNA expression profile and identify a novel role for miR-16 as a tumor suppressor in progestin- and growth factor-induced growth in breast cancer. © 2012 Rivas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Dienstmann R.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Rodon J.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Prat A.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Perez-Garcia J.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
And 6 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) cascade plays crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that in some tumor types, FGFRs are bona fide oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted. Because FGFR inhibition can reduce proliferation and induce cell death in a variety of in vitro and in vivo tumor models harboring FGFR aberrations, a growing number of research groups have selected FGFRs as targets for anticancer drug development. Multikinase FGFR/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have shown promising activity in breast cancer patients with FGFR1 and/or FGF3 amplification. Early clinical trials with selective FGFR inhibitors, which may overcome the toxicity constraints raised by multitarget kinase inhibition, are recruiting patients with known FGFR(1-4) status based on genomic screens. Preliminary signs of antitumor activity have been demonstrated in some tumor types, including squamous cell lung carcinomas. Rational combination of targeted therapies is expected to further increase the efficacy of selective FGFR inhibitors. Herein, we discuss unsolved questions in the clinical development of these agents and suggest guidelines for management of hyperphosphatemia, a class-specific mechanism-based toxicity. In addition, we propose standardized definitions for FGFR1 and FGFR2 gene amplification based on in situ hybridization methods. Extended access to next-generation sequencing platforms will facilitate the identification of diseases in which somatic FGFR(1-4) mutations, amplifications and fusions are potentially driving cancer cell viability, further strengthening the role of FGFR signaling in cancer biology and providing more possibilities for the therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Rodon J.,Vall dHebron University Hospital |
Saura C.,Vall dHebron University Hospital |
Dienstmann R.,Vall dHebron University Hospital |
Vivancos A.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
And 3 more authors.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012
The efficacy of targeted therapies in patient populations selected for treatment on the basis of the molecular features of their tumours is shifting the current focus of treatment to biomarker-driven clinical trials. Phase I trials provide an arena for early hypothesis testing, examining not only safety and toxicity, but also target engagement, biologically effective dosages, and the appropriate patient population. In this Perspectives article, we describe this new trend in early drug development, establishing the different approaches for building a pre-screening programme in an academic institution that is involved in early drug development. Our experience establishing the phase I programme at Vall d'Hebrón serves as an example of how these approaches can be integrated in ongoing trials, and we believe these considerations will help others to implement similar programmes in their institutions. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Prat A.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Adamo B.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Cheang M.C.U.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Anders C.K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 2 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2013
Triple-negative (TN) and basal-like (BL) breast cancer definitions have been used interchangeably to identify breast cancers that lack expression of the hormone receptors and overexpression and/or amplification of HER2. However, both classifications show substantial discordance rates when compared to each other. Here, we molecularly characterize TN tumors and BL tumors, comparing and contrasting the results in terms of common patterns and distinct patterns for each. In total, when testing 412 TN and 473 BL tumors, 21.4% and 31.5% were identified as non-BL and non-TN, respectively. TN tumors identified as luminal or HER2-enriched (HER2E) showed undistinguishable overall gene expression profiles when compared versus luminal or HER2E tumors that were not TN. Similar findings were observed within BL tumors regardless of their TN status, which suggests that molecular subtype is preserved regardless of individual marker results. Interestingly, most TN tumors identified as HER2E showed low HER2 expression and lacked HER2 amplification, despite the similar overall gene expression profiles to HER2E tumors that were clinically HER2-positive. Lastly, additional genomic classifications were examined within TN and BL cancers, most of which were highly concordant with tumor intrinsic subtype. These results suggest that future clinical trials focused on TN disease should consider stratifying patients based upon BL versus non-BL gene expression profiles, which appears to be the main biological difference seen in patients with TN breast cancer. © AlphaMed Press 2013.
Elez E.,Vall Dhebron Institute Of Oncology |
Argiles G.,Vall Dhebron Institute Of Oncology |
Tabernero J.,Vall Dhebron Institute Of Oncology
Current Treatment Options in Oncology | Year: 2015
The advances made in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer (CRC) over recent years with the addition of therapies targeting angiogenesis or cell proliferation have positioned bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab as accepted first-line treatments when combined with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI for RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic CRC. The question has been raised as to the choice of targeted therapy to maximize chances of an optimal outcome. Three studies, the phase III FIRE-3 (AIO KRK-0306), the phase II PEAK, and the recently presented phase III CALGB/SWOG 80405 trial, have addressed this issue face-on, directly comparing the addition of bevacizumab versus cetuximab or panitumumab to FOLFOX/FOLFIRI in terms of efficacy outcomes. None of these studies met their primary endpoint (response rate, progression-free survival or overall survival respectively), meaning we are no closer to being able to categorically define an optimal targeted treatment in the first-line setting for patients with advanced CRC. This led to reflection over study design and further analyses, raising a number of important issues. High-sensitivity analysis of the mutational status of exons identified a population with a “pure” non-RAS-mutated profile showing benefit with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) combinations, particularly in the context of early and greater depth of response. Coherent with a personalized therapeutic approach, the importance of performing individual high-sensitivity extended RAS testing is unequivocal and is currently a requirement in many countries to identify this all-RAS WT population, thus limiting unnecessary exposure and expense in patients unlikely to respond. These three studies, particularly the CALGB/SWOG 80405 trial, mark an important milestone in the roadmap of metastatic CRC treatment, highlighting the need for close analysis to fully exploit the available data. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Rodon J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Dienstmann R.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Serra V.,Vall dHebron Institute of Oncology |
Tabernero J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has an important role in cell metabolism, growth, migration, survival and angiogenesis. Drug development aimed at targetable genetic aberrations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been fomented by observations that alterations in this pathway induce tumour formation and that inappropriate PI3K signalling is a frequent occurrence in human cancer. Many of the agents developed have been evaluated in early stage clinical trials. This Review focuses on early clinical and translational data related to inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, as these data will likely guide the further clinical development of such agents. We review data from those trials, delineating the safety profile of the agents - whether observed sequelae could be mechanism-based or off-target effects - and drug efficacy. We describe predictive biomarkers explored in clinical trials and preclinical mechanisms of resistance. We also discuss key unresolved translational questions related to the clinical development of inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and propose designs for biomarker-driven trials to address those issues. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Prat A.,Vall DHebron Institute of Oncology |
Carey L.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Adamo B.,Vall DHebron Institute of Oncology |
Vidal M.,Vall DHebron Institute of Oncology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014
Background: The clinical impact of the biological heterogeneity within HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer is not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the molecular features and survival outcomes of the intrinsic subtypes within HER2+ breast cancer.Methods: We interrogated The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 495) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) datasets (n = 1730) of primary breast cancers for molecular data derived from DNA, RNA and protein, and determined intrinsic subtype. Clinical HER2 status was defined according to American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines or DNA copy-number aberration by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Cox models tested the prognostic significance of each variable in patients not treated with trastuzumab (n = 1711).Results: Compared with clinically HER2 (cHER2)-negative breast cancer, cHER2+ breast cancer had a higher frequency of the HER2-enriched (HER2E) subtype (47.0% vs 7.1%) and a lower frequency of Luminal A (10.7% vs 39.0%) and Basal-like (14.1% vs 23.4%) subtypes. The likelihood of cHER2-positivity in HER2E, Luminal B, Basal-like and Luminal A subtypes was 64.6%, 20.0%, 14.4% and 7.3%, respectively. Within each subtype, only 0.3% to 3.9% of genes were found differentially expressed between cHER2+ and cHER2-negative tumors. Within cHER2+ tumors, HER2 gene and protein expression was statistically significantly higher in the HER2E and Basal-like subtypes than either luminal subtype. Neither cHER2 status nor the new 10-subtype copy number-based classification system (IntClust) added independent prognostic value to intrinsic subtype.Conclusions: When the intrinsic subtypes are taken into account, cHER2-positivity does not translate into large changes in the expression of downstream signaling pathways, nor does it affect patient survival in the absence of HER2 targeting. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.