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Peuhkuri K.,University of Helsinki | Peuhkuri K.,Netnut Nutrition Information Services Company | Vapaatalo H.,University of Helsinki | Korpela R.,University of Helsinki | Korpela R.,Valio Research Center
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Independent of the cause and location, inflammation - even when minimal - has clear effects on gastrointestinal morphology and function. These result in altered digestion, absorption and barrier function. There is evidence of reduced villus height and crypt depth, increased permeability, as well as altered sugar and peptide absorption in the small intestine after induction of inflammation in experimental models, which is supported by some clinical data. Identification of in-flammatory factors which may promote the process of gastrointestinal dysfunction as well as clinical research to verify experimental observations of inflammatory modulation of gastrointestinal function are required. Moreover, nutritional strategies to support functional restitution are needed. © 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.


Korpela R.,University of Helsinki | Korpela R.,Valio Research Center | Von Wright A.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Von Wright A.,University of Eastern Finland | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics | Year: 2010

We studied the impart of rye bread and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation on fecal/urinary mutagenicity and fecal enzyme activities in healthy subjects who consumed experimental meals containing fried meat with high mutagenic activity. Twenty-eight volunteers, mean age 39 y (range 28-58), were randomly divided into 3 intervention groups that received, in addition to a 3-d fried meat diet, either whole grain rye bread 200-240 g/d, Lactobacillus GG fermented whey drink 400 mL/d, or no dietary supplementation. 24-h fecal and urine samples were collected, and Ames mutagenicities were subsequently determined, as were the activities of fecal β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase and urease. A significantly lower β-glucuronidase activity (nmol min-1. mg prot1) was detected in the rye bread group [geometric mean (95% CI) 2.0 (13-3.2)] in comparison to the controlgroup [4.0 (2.4-6.7), p = 0.044] and to the group receiving the Lactobacillus GG supplementation [3.9 (3.0-5.0), p= 0.047]. Mutagenicity was not significantly affected. In conclusion, rye bread consumption appears to reduce fecal β-glucuronidase activity (an enzyme important in carcinogen activation) and might therefore reduce the carcinogenicity offeces. Copyright © 2010 by New Century Health Publishers.


Kekkonen R.A.,Valio Research Center | Kekkonen R.A.,University of Helsinki | Holma R.,University of Helsinki | Holma R.,Navidia Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 × 1010 CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8- 26.4)] by probioticsalone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P= 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal β-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased β-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P<0.05) and with probiotics alone (P<0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal β-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal β-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Holma R.,University of Helsinki | Holma R.,Navidia Ltd | Hongisto S.-M.,Fazer Bakeries Ltd | Saxelin M.,Valio Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10 10 colony-forming units/d), wholegrain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 1010 colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P <0.001), respectively, and reduced fecal β-glucuronidase activity by 23% (P = 0.014). Compared with laxatives, rye bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal β-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Lehtoranta L.,University of Helsinki | Soderlund-Venermo M.,University of Helsinki | Nokso-Koivisto J.,University of Helsinki | Toivola H.,University of Helsinki | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2012

Objectives: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is frequently identified in children with respiratory tract infections, and its role in acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested. The disease associations for the closely related bocaviruses HBoV2-4 remain unknown. Increasing evidence shows that probiotics may reduce the risk of AOM of viral origin. Objectives of the study was to examine the prevalence and persistence of bocaviruses in consecutive nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) of otitis-prone children, and whether an association exists between HBoV and the child's characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and AOM pathogens, and whether probiotics reduce the occurrence of HBoV. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 6-month intervention study, 269 otitis-prone children (aged 9 months to 5.6 years), consumed daily either one capsule of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Bifidobacterium breve 99 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS) or placebo. After a clinical examination and NPS collected at three-time points, the presence and persistence of HBoV1-4 DNA in NPS was determined by RT-qPCR at the baseline, after 3, and 6 months. Results: A high load (>10,000. copies/ml) of HBoV DNA was detected in 26 (17.1%) of 152 children, and 16 (10.5%) showed a prolonged presence of HBoV for at least 3 months. None had DNA of HBoV2-4. Higher number of siblings associated with increased HBoV prevalence (p= 0.029). Prevalence or persistence of HBoV was not significantly associated with other characteristics, respiratory symptoms, or AOM pathogens. Probiotic intervention significantly reduced the number of HBoV DNA-positive samples (probiotic vs. placebo: 6.4% vs. 19.0%, OR = 0.25, CI 95% = 0.07-0.94, p= 0.039). Conclusions: HBoV, but not HBoV2-4, DNA occurs often in the nasopharynx of otitis-prone children, and may persist for 3-6 months. Probiotic treatment possibly reduced the presence of HBoV. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Tauriainen E.,University of Helsinki | Storvik M.,University of Eastern Finland | Finckenberg P.,University of Helsinki | Merasto S.,University of Helsinki | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics | Year: 2011

Background/Aims: The potential of whey protein and calcium to modify skeletal muscle gene expression during energy restriction (ER) was investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Methods: Obese C57BL/6J mice received casein (calcium 0.4%) and two different high-calcium (1.8%) whey protein-based [whey protein isolate (WPI) + Ca and α-lactalbumin + Ca] diets for ER. Results: Compared to casein, WPI and α-lactalbumin-based diets altered 208 and 287 genes, respectively, of which 186 genes were common to WPI and α-lactalbumin diets. These genes represented 31 KEGG pathways. The Wnt signaling was the most enriched pathway among the 101 genes regulated by α-lactalbumin only, whereas the 22 genes regulated by WPI only were not associated with KEGG pathways. Unlike casein, WPI and α-lactalbumin diets decreased Aldh1a7, Fasn, leptin, Nr4a3 and Scd1 mRNA expression, indicating dietary protein source-dependent alterations in muscle lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Muscle weight or lean body mass maintenance did not differ between groups although modest changes in hypertrophy/atrophy signaling were found. Conclusion: The skeletal muscle gene expression profile is modified by the dietary protein source and calcium during ER which may explain, at least in part, the greater anti-obesity effect of whey proteins and calcium compared to casein. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Holma R.,University of Helsinki | Korpela R.,University of Helsinki | Sairanen U.,Orion Corporation | Blom M.,National Public Health Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Goals: To investigate the association of colonic methane, formed by methanogenic achaea, and pH with gastrointestinal symptoms during colorectal cancer chemotherapy. Background: Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy reduces recurrences in colorectal cancer, but causes severe gastrointestinal toxicity, partly related to disturbed intestinal microbiota. Study: Resected colorectal cancer patients (n=143) were analyzed for colonic methanogenesis and pH before and during the 24 weeks of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy and for gastrointestinal symptoms during chemotherapy. This study was performed within the setting of an intervention study on the effects of Lactobacillus on chemotherapy-related gastrointestinal toxicity. The site of resected cancer, resection type, stoma, chemotherapy regimen, hypolactasia, and Lactobacillus intervention were considered as possible confounding factors, and multivariate models were constructed. Results: Baseline methane producers had less frequent diarrhea (more than or equal to moderate) during chemotherapy than nonproducers [odds ratio (OR), 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20 to 0.88; P=0.022] and more frequent constipation (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.01 to 10.32; P<0.001). Baseline fecal pH was also associated with symptoms during chemotherapy; higher the pH, the lower the risk of diarrhea (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.02; P=0.058) and higher the risk of constipation (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.35 to 3.68; P=0.002). In multivariate stepwise models, methanogenesis was a significant explaining factor with inverse association with diarrhea and positive association with constipation. Fecal pH, which was significantly associated with methane production, was no longer a significant explaining factor when methanogensis was included in the model. Conclusions: Methane producer status has a role in determining whether patient experiences diarrhea or constipation during 5-fluorouracil therapy. This underscores the importance of intestinal microbiota in the development of intestinal toxicity during 5-fluorouracil therapy. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hidalgo-Cantabrana C.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias | Kekkonen R.,Valio Research Center | de los Reyes-Gavilan C.G.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias | Salminen S.,Functional Food Forum | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

The gastrointestinal mucosa, composed mainly of a monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) covered by mucus, represents the first contact point of gut and orally ingested bacteria with the host. This bacteria-IEC interaction is important for maintenance of gut homeostasis. Here we assessed the capability of eleven bacteria to interact with two IEC types (Caco2 and HT29). The effect of the microorganisms upon IEC growth and proliferation, as well as on cytokine production, was determined. A high dependence on both the IEC line used and the strain tested was observed. None of the strains modified the growth or proliferation of HT29-cells but some affected that of Caco2. The presence of the bacteria did not affect cytokine production by Caco2-cells, but some strains modulated the cytokine production by HT29-cells. IL-1β and IL-6 production was reduced by all bacteria tested and most, except Bifidobacterium longum 1/10, Bifidobacterium breve 99/E8 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii PJS, reduced the production of IL-8. Lactococcus lactis ARH4 was the bacteria stimulating the highest production of TNFα, whilst Pr. freudenreichii PJS significantly increased IL-10 production and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 reducing it. This work evidences that the cellular model used to test bacterial host-cells interaction has a great impact on the results obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal -glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased -glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal -glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal -glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone.

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