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Bisimwa G.,Free University of Brussels | Owino V.O.,Valid Nutrition | Bahwere P.,Valid International | Bahwere P.,Free University of Brussels | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Evidence of the effectiveness of lipid-based ready-touse complementary foods (RUCF) at improving linear growth among infants aged 6-12 mo is scarce, and further work is warranted. Objective: The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a fortified soybean-maize-sorghum RUCF paste compared with a fortified corn soy blend (UNIMIX) porridge on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among infants in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Design: Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive either RUCF (n = 691) or UNIMIX (n = 692) for 6 mo. In addition to admission and monthly anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured at enrollment and at the end of the study. Results: No significant differences in the prevalence of stunting (RUCF: 48.6%; UNIMIX: 46.4%; P = 0.31), the prevalence of underweight (RUCF: 20.4%; UNIMIX: 18.2%; P = 0.42), or weight gain (RUCF: 1.2 ± 0.7 kg; UNIMIX: 1.3 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.08) were found. A small but statistically significant difference in length gain (RUCF: 5.2 ± 2.0; UNIMIX: 5.4 ± 2.0; P = 0.03) was found. No significant differences in the concentrations of hemoglobin, serum triglyceride, and serum cholesterol were found between the 2 groups. Conclusion: No significant differences were found between the RUCF and UNIMIX in the reduction of the prevalence of stunting and underweight at 12 mo of age among rural Congolese infants. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20267635. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Owino V.O.,Valid Nutrition | Bahwere P.,Valid International | Bahwere P.,Free University of Brussels | Bisimwa G.,Free University of Brussels | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Lipid-based ready-to-use foods are currently used for infant feeding, but their potential effect on breast-milk intake is not well documented. Objective: The objective was to assess the breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old infants given either a ready-to-use complementary food (RUCF) paste or a standard corn-soy blend (UNIMIX) porridge in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Design: Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive either RUCF (n = 700) or UNIMIX (n = 700) for 6 mo. Breast-milk intake was measured at 9-10 mo in a subsample of 58 infants (29 from each group). Mothers received a dose of ≈30 g deuterium oxide. Predose and postdose saliva samples were collected from both mothers and infants over 2 wk. Breast-milk intake (g/d) was measured from saliva samples by using infrared spectroscopy. Results: Mean (±SD) breast-milk intake was not significantly (P = 0.69) different between the 2 groups: RUCF (705 ± 236 g/d) and UNIMIX (678 ± 285 g/d). Mean (±SD) nonmilk oral water intakes were 338.3 ± 251.1 and 336.4 ± 227.2 g/d for RUCF and UNIMIX, respectively (P = 0.98). Conclusions: No differences in breast-milk intake were observed between infants consuming either RUCF or UNIMIX. The deuterium-dose-to-the- mother dilution technique is an affordable technique that we recommend for periodic evaluation of breast-milk intake in resource-poor settings. This trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20267635. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Irena A.H.,Valid International | Mwambazi M.,University of Zambia | Mulenga V.,University of Zambia
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2011

Introduction. Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method. A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to December 2009 were followed. Data on nutritional status, socio-demographic factors, and admission medical conditions were collected up on enrollment. T-test and chi-square tests were used to compare difference in mean or percentage values. Logistic regression was used to assess risk of mortality by admission characteristics. Results: Majority, 55.3% (238/430) were boys. The median age of the cohort was 17 months (inter-quartile range, IQR 12-22). Among the children, 68.9% (295/428) had edema at admission. The majority of the children, 67.3% (261/388), presented with diarrhea; 38.9% (162/420) tested HIV positive; and 40.5% (174/430) of the children died. The median Length of stay of the cohort was 9 days (IQR, 5-14 days); 30.6% (53/173) of the death occurred within 48 hours of admission. Children with diarrhea on admission had two and half times higher odds of mortality than those without diarrhea; Adjusted OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.50-4.09, P < 0.001). The odds of mortality for children with HIV infection was higher than children without HIV infection; Adjusted OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.99-2.48 P = 0.5). Conclusion: Diarrhea is a major cause of complication in children with severe acute malnutrition. Under the current standard management approach, diarrhea in children with SAM was found to increase their odds of death substantially irrespective of other factors. © 2011 Irena et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bahwere P.,Valid International
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2014

Natural and man-made disasters, including floods, droughts, earthquakes, and armed conflicts, create nutrition crises. Unfortunately, the frequency and severity of such disasters have been increasing since the beginning of the 20th century, and their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is increasing every year. However, their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is underrecognized due to the ways in which global statistics are built and causes of death are reported. Fortunately, the success of the current protocol for treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the integrated approach to treatment has created a momentum allowing expanded coverage of treatment of SAM, especially in humanitarian emergency contexts. For this progress to be maintained and accelerated, changes in nutrition information systems at the national and global levels are needed, and the persisting barriers to the expansion and integration of treatment of SAM into routine health systems need to be removed. Emergency funding approaches and objectives have to include sustaining and amplifying the achievements of the short-term palliative interventions. Nutrition programs implemented in emergency contexts have the capacity to contribute to answering priority research questions, and this capacity should be more optimally utilized. © 2014, The Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation.

The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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