Aslan B.,Arts et Metiers ParisTech |
Semail E.,Arts et Metiers ParisTech |
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2014
This paper studies magnet eddy-current losses in permanent-magnet (PM) machines with concentrated winding. First, space harmonics of magnetomotive force (MMF) and their influence on magnet losses in electrical machines are investigated. Second, an analytical model of magnet volume losses is developed by studying the interaction between MMF harmonics wavelengths and magnet pole dimensions. Different cases of this interaction are exhibited according to the ratio between each harmonic wavelength and magnet pole width. Then, various losses submodels are deduced. Using this analytical model, magnet volume losses for many slots/poles combinations of three-, five-, and seven-phase machines with concentrated winding are compared. This comparison leads to classify combinations into different families, depending on their magnet losses level. Finally, in order to verify the theoretical study, finite-element modes are built and simulation results are compared with analytical calculations. © 1986-2012 IEEE.
Kihm F.,Technology Center |
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013
Suppliers of shaker controllers often use a technique called 'sigma clipping' to prevent the amplifier from encountering too high amplitude peaks. Sigma clipping is most commonly used to make sure a shaker system will be sufficiently powerful to reproduce the required random spectrum. The level of clipping is measured via the crest factor, which is expressed as a ratio between the absolute maximum of the signal and its root-mean-square (RMS) value. Such clipped drive signals are therefore no longer Gaussian, since their probability distribution functions (PDF) are truncated at high values. The clipped drive signal is then amplified and filtered by a system made up of the shaker itself followed by the unit under test. Although the local stress and strain responses do not show any obvious clipping, their statistics may be affected. This can feed through to fatigue damage, which is known to be exponentially related to strain amplitudes. A legitimate question is therefore "how does clipping affect damage?" This paper studies and quantifies the influence of clipping experimentally, numerically and theoretically. There are many objectives and underlying questions to consider. For the test technicians, what level of clipping to choose in order to represent the damage due a Gaussian environment? Whereas for the simulation engineers, how to enhance damage estimations by taking into account the level of clipping? © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Guzman E.,TU Munich |
Aly O.,Valeo |
Bruegge B.,TU Munich
International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement | Year: 2015
Context: Users can have conflicting opinions and different experiences when using software and user reviews serve as a channel in which users can document their opinions and experiences. To develop and evolve software that is usable and relevant for a diverse group of users, different opinions and experiences need to be taken into account. Goal: In this paper we present DIVERSE, a feature and sentiment centric retrieval approach which automatically provides developers with a diverse sample of user reviews that is representative of the different opinions and experiences mentioned in the whole set of reviews. Results: We evaluated the diversity retrieval performance of our approach on reviews from seven apps from two different app stores. We compared the reviews retrieved by DIVERSE with a feature-based retrieval approach and found that on average DIVERSE outperforms the baseline approach. Additionally, a controlled experiment revealed that DIVERSE can help develop- ers save time when analyzing user reviews and was considered useful for detecting conflicting opinions and software evolution. Conclusions: DIVERSE can therefore help developers collect a comprehensive set of reviews and aid in the detection of conflicting opinions. © 2015 IEEE.
Lebre M.-A.,INSA Lyon |
Le Mouel F.,INSA Lyon |
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference | Year: 2016
Road intersections are considered to be bottlenecks for urban transportation whose impacts are longer travel times and wasted human resources. In this paper we focus on vehicle to vehicle communications (V2V) that allow exchanging data between vehicles. Considering that vehicles are controlled by drivers (not autonomous), we do not pretend to take control of them, nor is the goal to avoid collision or improve safety, as is often done elsewhere. By eliminating the potential overlaps of vehicular trajectories coming from all opposing directions at an intersection, our aim is to demonstrate the potential of communication between vehicles in a complex roundabout and test the connexion strength of that network. We test it on a synthetic trace that reproduces a real traffic flow at a roundabout in Creteil (France). © 2016 IEEE.
Barrett S.,National Instruments |
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015
Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.
Carniel X.,Cetim |
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
The control of sound fields radiated by vibrating structures in a passenger compartment, (especially structures connected to different organs like the engine powertrain, the fan motor unit, seats, the steering column, electrical motors more and more, etc.) is among the functions of the automotive manufacturers. The absence of physical prototypes in the development phase systems led OEMs1 to use tests results obtained on benches following technical specifications from manufacturers. The transition "bench to vehicle"for vibro- acoustic behaviour sets many challenges that this standard intends to clear up. This standard specifies the experimental method to transpose the dynamic forces generated by the global movements of an active component between the vehicle and a test bench. The efforts are first measured on test benches and then transposed from test bench towards the vehicle. The standard is now a French standard (XP R 19-701) and is submitted to ISO process . Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Valeo | Date: 2015-10-06
Unwrought or semi-wrought common metals and their alloys, anchors, anvils; metal bells; metal rails and other metal materials for railway tracks, metal chains; non-electric cables and wires of metal; metal bolt locks; metal locks; metal anti-theft locks; metal keys for locks; pipes of metal; metal safes and strongboxes; steel balls; nails; metal screws; metal parts for vehicles, namely, bolts, rivets; water pipe valves of metal; nuts of metal; door handles of metal; metal locks for vehicles; metal door latches; steel sheets; aluminum foil; metal securing wires for antennas; door casings of metal; fittings of metal for pipes; collars of metal for fastening pipes; clips of metal for cables or pipes; key rings of metal; armor plating; knobs of metal; cables of metal, non-electric; padlocks; chains of metal; hinges of metal ducts of metal for ventilating and air conditioning facilities; containers of metal for liquid fuel; metal pipe bends; metal tubs; wires of metal; grease nipples; registration plates of metal; lock bolts; door handles of metal; metal locks for vehicles; metal valves not being part of machines. Motors and engine other than for land vehicles; transmission couplings and belts other than for land vehicles; transmissions other than for land vehicles; machine parts, namely couplers; torque converters other than for land vehicles; clutches other than for land vehicles; machine flywheels; damper wheels other than for land vehicles; retarders and brakes, namely, brakes for machines; alternators; starter motors; dynamos; igniting devices for internal combustion engines; spark plugs; glow plugs for diesel engines; linings for machines, namely, friction linings and antifriction linings; electromagnets, especially for carrying purposes; carbon brushes, particularly for alternators, electric motors or dynamos; fans for motors and engines; hydraulic actuators of clutch controls; electric motors other than for land vehicles; hydraulic or pneumatic pumps; motors for apparatus for heating, refrigeration, aeration, ventilation, conditioning, air-conditioning, defogging for vehicles; turbines other than for land vehicles; hydraulic or pneumatic controls for hydraulic clutches other than for land vehicles; hydraulic or pneumatic control units for engines; friction disks other than for vehicles, namely, disc brakes; clutch release bearings for machines; hydraulic clutch controls for machines; electronically controlled actuators; hydraulic actuators of clutch controls; torque converters for vehicles, excluding land vehicles; electric generators; alternators; aeronautical engines; compressed air engines; filters for cleaning cooling air, for motors and engines; fuel, oil filters; machine parts, namely, shock absorber pistons; anti-pollution devices for motors and engines, vacuum cleaners; vacuum cleaner attachments for disseminating perfumes and disinfectants: gearboxes other than for land vehicles; fuel economizers for motors and engines, namely, turbochargers; cartridges for filtering machines, namely, air filters for automobile engines, fuel filters; parts of machines, namely, metal clack valves; hydraulic controls for machines, motors and engines; pneumatic controls for machines, motors and engines; fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines; fan belts for motors and engines; belts for motors and engines; jacks, namely, power jacks; cylinder heads for engines; cylinders for motors and engines; pistons for cylinders; starters for motors and engines; heat exchangers being parts of machines; exhausts for motors and engines; injectors for motor and engines; engine joints other than for land vehicles; washing installations for vehicles; machine wheels; parts of machines or engines, namely, pistons; machine parts, namely, pressure valves; cooling radiators for motors and engines; parts of machines, namely, valves; turbo compressors for machines; fans for motors and engines; brake shoes, brake pads and shoes, brake discs, excluding brakes for vehicles; engine filters; gasoline pumps for service stations. Scientific, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signaling, detection, checking, supervision, life-saving and safety apparatus, namely, cameras, radar object detectors, LIDARS; apparatus and instruments for conducting, switching, transforming, accumulating, regulating or controlling electricity, namely, electric switches, electric batteries; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic recording media, sound recording or optical disks sold blank; compact discs sold blank; DVDs and other digital recording media sold blank; equipment for data processing and computers; recorded software for the automotive industry and software for vehicles, namely, recorded computer software for operating motor vehicle computer; computer peripherals; electric batteries; safety detectors for vehicles, namely, object detectors, electronic proximity sensors, visual and audio distance sensors, radars comprised primarily of speed and distance detection radars, obstacle detection sensors, modules for projecting visible and infrared light, fluid level sensors, oil level sensors, temperature sensors, rain sensors, dirt sensors, namely, pollutant sensors, pressure sensors position sensors, blind spot sensors, torque sensors, rotary speed sensors; ultrasonic object detectors for use on vehicles, electronic proximity sensors, motion detectors and motion analysis detectors, reversing detectors for vehicles, anti-collision and shock-prevention detectors for vehicles, video cameras, infrared sensors, anti-collision and shock-prevention radar sensors for vehicles, ultrasound wave transceivers, visual and audio distance sensors, obstacle sensors, parking space size sensors; obstacle detection devices, namely, data processors, cameras, infrared cameras, computers; safety diagnostic apparatus for vehicles, namely, sensors, rotary speed sensors, fluid level sensors, oil level sensors, temperature sensors, rain sensors, dirt sensors, namely, pollutant sensors, pressure sensors position sensors; electric wires; electric relays; protection devices for personal use against accidents, namely, helmet safety lights, flashing safety lights; blank integrated circuit cards, namely, smart cards; electric and electronic apparatus, instruments, material and equipment for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, GPS navigation devices; systems for the wireless connection of electronic devices, comprising wireless routers, wireless transceiver radios; wireless monitoring, regulation, control and connection systems between electronic apparatus and a land vehicle, comprising wireless routers, wireless transceiver radios; traditional semiconductor fuse boxes, electric interconnection housings; on-board communication network systems for vehicles comprising wireless routers and wireless transceiver radios; microphones; earphones; connectors and connection pieces, namely, cable connectors, fiber optic connectors; interface links, namely, high definition multimedia interface cables; on board computers for vehicles, including land vehicles, for steering, signaling, controlling, for information, safety as well as processing of information and sounds, images and data related thereto; electric sensors for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles; devices for adjusting headlight beams; current converters, namely, chopper circuits; supercapacitors; current rectifiers; diode bridges; electrical or electronic variators, namely, voltage variators; electric accumulators; electric relays and commutators; printed circuits; electronic components, namely, capacitors, optical receivers, piezoelectric switches; diodes and semiconductors; on-board and ground diagnostic calculators, namely, on-board computers for diagnosing vehicle malfunctions or position; on-board diagnostic systems and remote query diagnostic systems comprising on-board computers, wireless transceiver radios; systems for downloading software and updating software for vehicles comprising on-board computers and wireless receivers; systems for communication between vehicles and road infrastructure comprising GPS navigation devices; electromagnetic relays; electric and/or electronic controls for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, GPS navigation devices; electrical and electronic locks; transponders; security alarms featuring ultrasound sensors; electric switches; housings for electronic circuits, electrical connectors; air analysis apparatus; integrated circuits; fiber-optic cables; coaxial cables; battery starter cables for motors; optical data media sold blank; magnetic data media sold blank; transmitters of electronic signals, namely, telecommunications transmitters; electric fuses; computer peripherals; warning triangles for vehicles; portable telephones; multimedia equipment for the information and entertainment of passengers of a vehicle, namely, on-board DVD players, on-board screen displays; headlight inclination correctors; devices for regulating headlight beams; signaling lights indicators, namely, vehicle traffic signals; electronic position indicators for valves and faucets; capacitor condensers. Lighting installations; headlights for vehicles; glass panes for head lamps; vehicle headlights; ceiling lights; lamps; vehicle signaling lights, namely, vehicle turn-signal light bulbs; heating installations; steam generating installations; refrigerating installations; drying installations, namely, drying machines for vehicles; water supply installations, namely, water heaters, pressure regulators; air ozonizers; hot air ovens; conditioners, namely, air conditioners; convectors, namely, convection ovens; heat exchangers; heating apparatus, namely, radiators, finned pipes, boilers; heating, refrigerating, airing ventilating, air conditioning and defogging apparatus for vehicles; turbine ventilators, ventilator fans for air conditioning; heat accumulators; air-purifying apparatus and machines; electric air deodorizing apparatus; filters for air conditioning; air filtering installations; light bulbs; light bulbs for directional signals for vehicles; electric light bulbs; demisting heating apparatus for vehicles; anti-dazzle devices for vehicles, namely, lamp fittings; heating apparatus for defrosting windows of vehicles; radiator caps; solar collectors for heating; heat regenerators; air conditioners for vehicles; air conditioners for vehicles; defrosters for vehicles; light bulbs for directional signals for vehicles; liquid cooler installations, namely, beverage-cooling apparatus; plumbing fittings, namely, level regulating valves for tanks; water pressure booster tanks; evaporators; electric radiators; storage devices for heat or cold, namely, portable heaters; directional lighting fixtures; lighting systems for reducing glare from other drivers comprising adjusting light beam installations; signaling systems with light-emitting diodes, including high-power diodes for automobiles signaling. Vehicles, apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water, namely, cars, trucks, vans, automobiles; motors and engines for land vehicles; electric motors for vehicles; suspension shock absorbers for vehicles; vehicle chassis or bumpers, namely, automobile chassis, automobile bumpers; electric vehicles, namely, electric cars, trucks, vans, automobiles; transmissions for land vehicles; clutches for land vehicles; clutch mechanisms for land vehicles; friction disks, namely, brake discs for vehicles; clutch release bearings for land vehicles; torsional dampers for clutches for land vehicles; fly wheels for land vehicles; flywheels with torsional damper; electric controls for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, power steering; electronic and hydraulic actuators for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, on board actuators for vehicles; couplers, namely, vehicle trailer hitch couplers; torque converters for vehicles and replacement command or control parts thereof; brakes and braking equipment for vehicles, control and regulation units and devices for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, brakes for vehicles; safety belts for vehicle passengers; accessories for vehicle equipment or decoration, namely, hoods, doors, bumpers, steering wheels, windshields, window panes, hoods for vehicles, gearboxes, axles, wheels, wheel rims, tires, inner tubes for vehicle tires, spikes for tires, namely, anti-skid spikes for tires, hub caps, balance weights for wheels, air pumps, automobile chains, seats, seat covers, child safety seats, headrests for seats, trailer connections, luggage carriers, ski luggage racks; electro-mechanical actuators for the assistance, operation and navigation of land vehicles, namely, on board actuators for vehicles; brake linings for land vehicles; steering wheel locks; car horns; windshield wipers and components thereof such as windshield wiper blades, connectors and fastening systems for windshield wiper blades, windshield wiper arms, deflectors; windshield wiper movement transmission assemblies; windshield wiper support plates; motor reducers, namely, gear changing mechanisms for land and water vehicles; windshield washers for land vehicles; windshield washer bottles for land vehicles; lockless petrol tank caps for vehicles; vehicle door handles, brake shoes, brake pads and shoes for land vehicles; brake discs, equipment for eliminating pollutant gases, namely, de-pollutant installation for vehicles gas exhaust; windshields; rearview mirrors; petrol tank caps with lock for land vehicles; cigar lighters for cars; land vehicle parts, namely, shoes, shoe plates, blocks, washers, sectors, disks, belts, bearing rings and rollers, made of or coated with friction or anti-friction bodies; headlamp washers, namely, headlamp washing apparatus for vehicles; headlamp wipers. Vehicle repair; installation services for vehicle accessories; vehicle maintenance and repair; vehicle breakdown assistance, namely, vehicle maintenance and repair; vehicle cleaning and polishing; installation and repair of alarm devices, anti-theft devices, apparatus for heating, refrigerating, air conditioning, electric apparatus; rustproofing; vehicle service stations; chimney building, painting, plastering, plumbing and roofing; rental of tools and construction equipment, bulldozers and tree-uprooting equipment; upkeep or cleaning of various objects, namely, rug cleaning, jewelry cleaning; retreading of tires, vulcanization of tires, installation and repair of air conditioning apparatus; providing information related to the repair of automobiles; vehicle cleaning, installation, maintenance and repair of computer hardware; rebuilding of worn or partially destroyed engines automobiles; repair of locks. Telecommunications services, namely, wireless telephone services, wireless telecommunication services between automobiles and telephones, smartphones, tablets, computers; transmission of information via the internet, electronic mail services; transmission of data by teletypewriter, transmission of messages, telegrams. Industrial research services in the field of energy-saving and ecology applied to motor vehicles; quality control services for motor vehicles; pollution control services for motor vehicles, namely, technical consulting in the field of pollution detection for motor vehicles; advisory services in the field of energy saving relating to the automotive sector; research and development in the field of energy-saving relating to the automotive sector; performing technical project studies on behalf of others in the field of energy-saving in the automotive sector; consultancy in the field of energy-saving relating to the automotive sector; technical advice in the field of energy-saving relating to the automotive sector; technical consultancy on environmental protection relating to the automotive sector.
Valeo | Date: 2016-03-10
Electronic equipment and material used for assistance, driving, navigation, active safety, evasive maneuvers, emergency braking in connection with land vehicles, namely, laser scanner for detecting static and/or moving obstacles.
Valeo | Date: 2011-12-09
WINDSCREEN WASHERS, NAMELY, POWER WASHING MACHINES FOR WATER WASHING OF VEHICLE WINDSCREENS; HEADLIGHT WASHERS, NAMELY, POWER WASHING MACHINES FOR WATER WASHING OF VEHICLE HEADLIGHTS; HEATED NOZZLES, NAMELY, HEATED NOZZLES WHICH ARE PARTS OF POWER-OPERATED SPRAYERS, HEATED NOZZLES FOR PARTICLE BLAST CLEANING MACHINES FOR VEHICLES. CONTROL APPARATUS, HOUSINGS AND SYSTEMS, NAMELY, WATER HEATER CONTROLS, ELECTRIC SWITCH HOUSINGS, THERMOSTATS ALL TO HEAT LIQUID IN HEADLIGHT WASHERS AND WINDSCREEN WASHERS. DEVICES TO HEAT LIQUID IN WINDSCREEN WASHERS AND HEADLIGHT WASHERS, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WASHER FLUID HEATERS AND HEADLIGHT WASHER FLUID HEATERS; WATER HEATERS FOR VEHICLES; WATER HEATERS. WINDSCREEN WIPERS AND COMPONENT PARTS THEREOF, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WIPER BLADES, FASTENING SYSTEMS COMPRISED OF CONNECTORS FOR ATTACHING WINDSCREEN WIPER BLADES TO WINDSCREEN WIPER ARMS, ARMS, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WIPER ARMS, SPOILERS, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WIPER SPOILERS, AND TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS FOR VEHICLES, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WIPER TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS; SUPPORT PLATES, NAMELY, PLATES FOR SUPPORTING WINDSCREEN WIPER ARMS FOR ATTACHMENT TO LAND VEHICLES; ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR LAND VEHICLES; GEARED MOTORS FOR LAND VEHICLES; WINDSCREEN WASHERS, NAMELY, WINDSCREEN WIPERS; WINDSCREEN WASHER BOTTLES BEING AUTOMOTIVE STRUCTURAL PARTS, NAMELY, BOTTLES FOR HOLDING WINDSCREEN WASHER FLUIDS; WINDSCREEN WASHER NOZZLES BEING AUTOMOTIVE STRUCTURAL PARTS; HEADLIGHT WIPERS AND COMPONENT PARTS THEREOF, NAMELY, HEADLIGHT WIPER BLADES, FASTENING SYSTEMS COMPRISED OF CONNECTORS FOR ATTACHING HEADLIGHT WIPER BLADES TO HEADLIGHT WIPER ARMS, ARMS, NAMELY, HEADLIGHT WIPER ARMS, SPOILERS, NAMELY, HEADLIGHT WIPER SPOILERS, AND TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS FOR VEHICLES, NAMELY, HEADLIGHT WIPER TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS.
Valeo | Date: 2014-03-25
Scientific, nautical, optical, measuring and signaling apparatus and instruments, for indication of position, detection, checking (supervision), safety; electric and electronic components, apparatus, instruments and equipment for headlights namely headlight controls, optical, electric and electronic wiring systems, including in pre-assembled form, particularly for vehicles and all components for transmission by multiplexing, coupling or other means of signals (sounds, images, data) or information on vehicles; carrier currents; systems for the wireless connection of electronic devices; electric interconnection housings; on-board communication networks for vehicles, especially multiplexed, namely electric cables and optical fibers; electric, electronic or optical on-board equipment for vehicles, namely electric cables and optical fibers; connectors; interface links; electric, electronic or optical equipment, on board vehicles, including land vehicles, for steering, signaling, controlling, for information, safety as well as processing of information and signals (sounds, images, data) related thereto; position, angle, torque and rotary speed sensors; light sensors, sensors for varying light intensity, sensors for dimming a light source; light detectors, detectors for varying light intensity, detectors for dimming a light source; transmitter/receivers of light sources, transmitter/receivers for varying light intensity, transmitter/receivers for dimming a light source; testing apparatus for light sources, testing apparatus for varying light intensity, apparatus for analyzing the variation of a light source; devices for adjusting headlight beams; chopper circuits (current converters); supercapacitors; current rectifiers; diode bridges; electrical or electronic variators; electric accumulators; electric relays and commutators; printed circuits; electronic components; diodes and semiconductors; rectifiers, particularly diode bridges, electronic ignition modules; on-board and ground diagnostic calculators; on-board diagnostic systems and remote query diagnostic systems; systems for downloading software and updating software; systems for communication between vehicles and road infrastructure; electromagnetic relays; measuring sensors; wiring harnesses; ignition harnesses; remote control systems; electronic key fobs; electric switches; electric switches; on-board computers for vehicles; navigation assistance devices comprising compact disk players or other digital data media, liquid crystal display screens, microphones, keyboards, loudspeakers and headphones; on-board and ground diagnostic calculators; electric switches; electric control levers; systems for communication between a motor vehicle and a fixed station; electronic cards; housings for electronic circuits; electrical connectors; rotating contacts; switches below steering wheels; flashing-light units; electronic power supply devices for discharge lamps; data media, especially magnetic or optical media; talking machines; calculating machines; protection devices for personal use against accidents; printed circuits; integrated circuits; fiber-optic cables; coaxial cables; optical data media; magnetic data media; transmitting sets (telecommunication); transmitters of electronic signals; distance recording apparatus; data processing apparatus; readers (data processing equipment); optical character readers; software (recorded programs); distance measuring apparatus; modems; monitors (hardware); monitors (computer programs); satellite navigation apparatus; navigation apparatus for vehicles (on-board computers); computers; computer peripherals; transmitters of electronic signals; simulators for the steering and control of vehicles; electric cards; devices for regulating headlight beams; variators for lighting intensity, especially as a function of braking for brake lights; pre-collision detection and collision avoidance systems; light variation sensors; equipment for communication via Internet link or similar equipment and for data display inside a vehicle; reception antennas, transmission antennas for sound, images and data; head-up screen display; lateral trajectory monitoring systems; video sensors; road-marking detection apparatus; apparatus and instruments for processing video images; systems and instruments for the remote control of vehicles; systems for blind spot monitoring and lane changing assistance; electronic management systems for lighting and signaling and cameras; lenses for sunglasses, polarizing lenses, tinted lenses, filtering lenses, colored lenses, light-sensitive lenses, light-adjusting lenses; computer software for controlling and monitoring optical and measuring apparatus and instruments; software for measuring and displaying optical parameters; optical measuring apparatus; optical goods; spectacles (optics); spectacle frames; testing of spectacles; spectacle fronts; spectacle pads; spectacle lenses; lenses, filters for power beam of headlights; headlight inclination correctors; devices for regulating headlight beams; signaling lights indicators. Lighting installations, headlights for vehicles; headlight mirrors (transparent wall for enclosing headlights); vehicle headlights; ceiling lights; lamps; headlamp washers; headlamp wipers; vehicle signaling lights; light bulbs; light bulbs for directional signals for vehicles; electric light bulbs; anti-glare devices for vehicles (lamp fittings); light bulbs for directional signals for vehicles; lighting and signaling systems with light-emitting diodes, including high-power diodes; directional lighting systems; lighting systems for reducing glare from other drivers. Vehicles, apparatus for locomotion by land; accessories for vehicle equipment or decoration, namely windscreens, windows; windshields; windshields comprising a screen for viewing data and images.