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Filho G.P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Ueyama J.,University of Sao Paulo | Faical B.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Pessin G.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 14th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, NCA 2015 | Year: 2015

This work proposes an intelligent decision system for a residential infrastructure based on wireless sensors and actuator networks, called ResiDI. ResiDI is equipped with battery-powered nodes to ensure that they are deployable anywhere in the house without the need for wiring, drilling or any pre-existing infrastructure. The key intelligence of ResiDI is distributed in the decider nodes, which are able to make decisions locally without the need to send traffic from the sensor nodes to the sink. The network intelligence core is based on a neural network that seeks to improve the accuracy of the decision-making, together with a temporal correlation mechanism that is targeted at reducing the energy consumption. When compared with an approach adopted in the literature, the results show that ResiDI is efficient in different scenarios in all evaluations performed. © 2015 IEEE.

Segundo A.K.R.,Federal University of Ouro Preto | Martins J.H.,Federal University of Viçosa | Monteiro P.M.B.,Federal University of Ouro Preto | de Oliveira R.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Freitas G.M.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument. © 2015 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Khan M.T.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | De O. Manes C.-L.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | De O. Manes C.-L.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV | Aubry C.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling is not a static state but a dynamic phenomenon. The investigation of fouling kinetics and dynamics of change in the composition of the foulant mass is essential to elucidate the mechanism of fouling and foulant-foulant interactions. The aim of this work was to study at a lab scale the fouling process with an emphasis on the changes in the relative composition of foulant material as a function of operating time. Fouled membrane samples were collected at 8 h, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks on a lab-scale RO unit operated in recirculation mode. Foulant characterization was performed by CLSM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, pyrolysis GC-MS, and ICP-MS techniques. Moreover, measurement of active biomass and analysis of microbial diversity were performed by ATP analysis and DNA extraction, followed by pyro-sequencing, respectively. A progressive increase in the abundance of almost all the foulant species was observed, but their relative proportion changed over the age of the fouling layer. Microbial population in all the membrane samples was dominated by specific groups/species belonging to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla; however, similar to abiotic foulant, their relative abundance also changed with the biofilm age. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Pylro V.S.,Genomics and Computational Biology Group | Morais D.K.,Genomics and Computational Biology Group | de Oliveira F.S.,Genomics and Computational Biology Group | Dos Santos F.G.,Genomics and Computational Biology Group | And 3 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2016

Recent advances in science and technology are leading to a revision and re-orientation of methodologies, addressing old and current issues under a new perspective. Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) are allowing comparative analysis of the abundance and diversity of whole microbial communities, generating a large amount of data and findings at a systems level. The current limitation for biologists has been the increasing demand for computational power and training required for processing of NGS data. Here, we describe the deployment of the Brazilian Microbiome Project Operating System (BMPOS), a flexible and user-friendly Linux distribution dedicated to microbiome studies. The Brazilian Microbiome Project (BMP) has developed data analyses pipelines for metagenomic studies (phylogenetic marker genes), conducted using the two main high-throughput sequencing platforms (Ion Torrent and Illumina MiSeq). The BMPOS is freely available and possesses the entire requirement of bioinformatics packages and databases to perform all the pipelines suggested by the BMP team. The BMPOS may be used as a bootable live USB stick or installed in any computer with at least 1 GHz CPU and 512 MB RAM, independent of the operating system previously installed. The BMPOS has proved to be effective for sequences processing, sequences clustering, alignment, taxonomic annotation, statistical analysis, and plotting of metagenomic data. The BMPOS has been used during several metagenomic analyses courses, being valuable as a tool for training, and an excellent starting point to anyone interested in performing metagenomic studies. The BMPOS and its documentation are available at http://www.brmicrobiome.org. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Mano L.Y.,University of Sao Paulo | Faical B.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Nakamura L.H.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Nakamura L.H.V.,Federal University of São Paulo | And 9 more authors.
Computer Communications | Year: 2016

Currently, there is an increasing number of patients that are treated in-home, mainly in countries such as Japan, USA and Europe. As well as this, the number of elderly people has increased significantly in the last 15 years and these people are often treated in-home and at times enter into a critical situation that may require help (e.g. when facing an accident, or becoming depressed). Advances in ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) have provided efficient and cheap equipments that include wireless communication and cameras, such as smartphones or embedded devices like Raspberry Pi. Embedded computing enables the deployment of Health Smart Homes (HSH) that can enhance in-home medical treatment. The use of camera and image processing on IoT is still an application that has not been fully explored in the literature, especially in the context of HSH. Although use of images has been widely exploited to address issues such as safety and surveillance in the house, they have been little employed to assist patients and/or elderly people as part of the home-care systems. In our view, these images can help nurses or caregivers to assist patients in need of timely help, and the implementation of this application can be extremely easy and cheap when aided by IoT technologies. This article discusses the use of patient images and emotional detection to assist patients and elderly people within an in-home healthcare context. We also discuss the existing literature and show that most of the studies in this area do not make use of images for the purpose of monitoring patients. In addition, there are few studies that take into account the patient's emotional state, which is crucial for them to be able to recover from a disease. Finally, we outline our prototype which runs on multiple computing platforms and show results that demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Souza-Filho P.W.M.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV | Souza-Filho P.W.M.,Vale S.A. | Nascimento W.R.,Vale S.A. | Versiani De Mendonca B.R.,Federal University of Pará | And 6 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2015

Human actions are changing the Amazon's landscape by clearing tropical forest and replacing it mainly by pasturelands. The focus of this work is to assess the changes in the Itacaiúnas River watershed; an area located in the southeastern Amazon region, near Carajás, one of the largest mining provinces of the World. We used a Landsat imagery dataset to map and detect land covers (forest and montane savanna) and land use (pasturelands, mining and urban) changes from 1984 to 2013. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with visual interpretation and geographic object-based classification. Land covers and land use (LCLU) "from-to" change detection approach was carried out to recognize the trajectories of LCLU classes based on object change detection analysis. We observed that ∼47% (∼1.9 million ha) of forest kept unchanged; almost 41% (∼1.7 million ha) of changes was associated to conversion from forest to pasture, while 8% (∼333, 000 ha) remained unchanged pasture. The conversion of forest and montane savannah to mining area represents only 0.24% (∼9, 000 ha). We can conclude that synergy of visual interpretation to discriminate fine level objects with low contrast associated to urban, mining and savanna classes; and automatic classification of coarse level objects related to forest and pastureland classes is most successfully than use these methods individually. In essence, this approach combines the advantages of the human quality interpretation and quantitative computing capacity.

Freitas A.C.V.,Federal University of Itajubá | Aimola L.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV | Ambrizzi T.,Institute of Astronomy | de Oliveira C.P.,Institute of Astronomy
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics | Year: 2016

The impacts of changes in the intensity of the regional Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding regions are investigated during the period 1979–2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific region, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon–ENSO–Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

Ueyama J.,University of Sao Paulo | Freitas H.,University of Sao Paulo | Filho G.P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Fini P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2014

A wireless sensor network is liable to suffer faults for several reasons, which include faulty nodes or even the fact that nodes have been destroyed by a natural disaster, such as a flood. These faults can give rise to serious problems if WSNs do not have a reconfiguration mechanism at execution. It should be noted that many WSNs designed to detect natural disasters are deployed in inhospitable places and depend on multihop communication to allow the data to reach a sink node. As a result, a fault in a single node can leave a part of the system inoperable until the node recovers from this failure. In light of this, this article outlines a solution that entails employing unmanned aerial vehicles to reduce the problems arising from faults in a sensor network when monitoring natural disasters like floods and landslides. In the solution put forward, UAVs can be transported to the site of the disaster to mitigate problems caused by faults (e.g., by serving as routers or even acting as a data mule). Experiments conducted with real UAVs and with our WSN-based prototype for flood detection (already deployed in São Carlos, State of São Paulo, Brazil, have proven that this is a viable approach. © 2014 IEEE.

PubMed | Vale Institute of Technology ITV, Federal University of Pará and Vale S.A.
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2016

Long-term human-induced impacts have significantly changed the Amazonian landscape. The most dramatic land cover and land use (LCLU) changes began in the early 1970s with the establishment of the Trans-Amazon Highway and large government projects associated with the expansion of agricultural settlement and cattle ranching, which cleared significant tropical forest cover in the areas of new and accelerated human development. Taking the changes in the LCLU over the past four decades as a basis, this study aims to determine the consequences of land cover (forest and savanna) and land use (pasturelands, mining and urban) changes on the hydroclimatology of the Itacainas River watershed area of the located in the southeastern Amazon region. We analyzed a multi-decadal Landsat dataset from 1973, 1984, 1994, 2004 and 2013 and a 40-yr time series of water discharge from the Itacainas River, as well as air temperature and relative humidity data over this drainage area for the same period. We employed standard Landsat image processing techniques in conjunction with a geographic object-based image analysis and multi-resolution classification approach. With the goal of detecting possible long-term trends, non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied, based on a Sen slope estimator on a 40-yr annual PREC, TMED and RH time series, considering the spatial average of the entire watershed. In the 1970s, the region was entirely covered by forest (99%) and savanna (0.3%). Four decades later, only 48% of the tropical forest remains, while pasturelands occupy approximately 50% of the watershed area. Moreover, in protected areas, nearly 97% of the tropical forest remains conserved, while the forest cover of non-protected areas is quite fragmented and, consequently, unevenly distributed, covering an area of only 30%. Based on observational data analysis, there is evidence that the conversion of forest cover to extensive and homogeneous pasturelands was accompanied by systematic modifications to the hydroclimatology cycle of the Itacainas watershed, thus highlighting drier environmental conditions due to a rise in the regions air temperature, a decrease in the relative humidity, and an increase in river discharge.

Lopes P.,Vale Institute of Technology ITV | Lana M.,Federal University of Ouro Preto
Mathematical Geosciences | Year: 2016

The calculation of the volumes of rock blocks delimited by discontinuity planes in rock masses is essential for the design of excavations and supports, applied to various engineering activities, like mining and tunneling. Furthermore, the block volumes control the rock mass behavior. If very small blocks are predominant, the rock mass tends to act as a continuum media and exhibit failure through the rock material. In case of prevalence of large blocks the rock mass acts as a discrete block set and failure through discontinuities can occur. There are many analytical methods in technical literature to calculate the volume of rock blocks but most of them are not realistic in relation to data input. In some cases a detailed knowledge of block geometry is required; such condition is rarely available in a field survey. This paper presents an analytical solution for block volume calculation using an easily obtained data in the field. Tetrahedral, tabular or prismatic blocks can be considered. An extension of the solution for polyhedral blocks is also presented. © 2016 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences

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