Zainabadi K.,VAGLAHS West Los Angeles |
Zainabadi K.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases |
Jain A.V.,VAGLAHS West Los Angeles |
Donovan F.X.,Human Genome Research Institutes |
And 6 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2014
Cloning and sequencing of 5.5. kb deletion at chromosome 11q13.1 from the HeLa cells, tumorigenic hybrids and two fibroblast cell lines have revealed homologous recombination between AluSx and AluY resulting in the deletion of intervening sequences. Long-range PCR of the 5.5. kb sequence in 494 normal lymphocyte samples showed heterozygous deletion in 28.3% of African-American ancestry samples but only in 4.8% of Caucasian samples (p. <. 0.0001). This observation is strengthened by the copy number variation (CNV) data of the HapMap samples which showed that this deletion occurs in 27% of YRI (Yoruba - West African) population but none in non-African populations. The HapMap analysis further identified strong linkage disequilibrium between 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the 5.5. kb deletion in people of African ancestry. Computational analysis of 175. kb sequence surrounding the deletion site revealed enhanced flexibility, low thermodynamic stability, high repetitiveness, and stable stem-loop/hairpin secondary structures that are hallmarks of common fragile sites. © 2013.
Vira D.,VAGLAHS West Los Angeles |
Vira D.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Basak S.K.,VAGLAHS West Los Angeles |
Basak S.K.,University of California at Los Angeles |
And 5 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012
Embryonic stem cells divide continuously and differentiate into organs through the expression of specific transcription factors at specific time periods. Differentiated adult stem cells on the other hand remain in quiescent state and divide by receiving cues from the environment (extracellular matrix or niche), as in the case of wound healing from tissue injury or inflammation. Similarly, it is believed that cancer stem cells (CSCs), forming a smaller fraction of the tumor bulk, also remain in a quiescent state. These cells are capable of initiating and propagating neoplastic growth upon receiving environmental cues, such as overexpression of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Candidate CSCs express distinct biomarkers that can be utilized for their identification and isolation. This review focuses on the known and candidate cancer stem cell markers identified in various solid tumors and the promising future of disease management and therapy targeted at these markers. The review also provides details on the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), and the miRNA- and natural product-based therapies that could be applied for the treatment of cancer stem cells. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).