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Karagiannidis I.,Democritus University of Thrace | Dehning S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Sandor P.,University of Western Ontario | Tarnok Z.,Vadaskert Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | And 21 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by the interaction of environment with a complex genetic background. The genetic etiology of the disorder remains, so far, elusive, although multiple promising leads have been recently reported. The recent implication of the histamine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, the key enzyme in histamine production, raises the intriguing hypothesis of a possible role of histaminergic dysfunction leading to TS onset. Methods: Following up on the finding of a nonsense mutation in a single family with TS, we investigated variation across the HDC gene for association with TS. As a result of a collaborative international effort, we studied a large sample of 520 nuclear families originating from seven European populations (Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, German, Albanian, Spanish) as well as a sample collected in Canada. Results and Conclusions: Interrogating 12 tagging SNPs (tSNP) across the HDC region, we find strong over-transmission of alleles at two SNPs (rs854150 and rs1894236) in the complete sample, as well as a statistically significant associated haplotypes. Analysis of individual populations also reveals signals of association in the Canadian, German and Italian samples. Our results provide strong support for the histaminergic hypothesis in TS etiology and point to a possible role of histamine pathways in neuronal development.

Paschou P.,Democritus University of Thrace | Stylianopoulou E.,Democritus University of Thrace | Karagiannidis I.,Democritus University of Thrace | Rizzo R.,University of Catania | And 18 more authors.
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2012

The etiology and pathophysiology of Tourette Syndrome (TS) remain poorly understood. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a complex genetic background and the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit are involved. The role of Lhx6 and Lhx8 in the development of the striatal interneurons, prompted us to investigate them as novel candidate genes for TS. We performed a comparative study of the expression of Lhx6 and Lhx8 and investigated genetic association with TS using two samples of trios (TSGeneSEE and German sample - 222 families). We show that Lhx6 and Lhx8 expression in the forebrain is evolutionarily conserved, underlining their possible importance in TS-related pathophysiological pathways. Our tagging-single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNP)-based association analysis was negative for association with LHX8. However, we found positive association with LHX6 in the TSGeneSEE sample (corrected P-value = 0.006 for three-site haplotype around SNP rs3808901) but no association in the sample of German families. Interestingly, the SNP allele that was identified to be significantly associated in the TSGeneSEE dataset, showed an opposite trend of transmission in the German dataset. Our analysis of the correlation of the LHX6 region with individual ancestry within Europe, revealed the fact that this particular SNP demonstrates a high degree of population differentiation and is correlated with the North to South axis of European genetic variation. Our results indicate that further study of the LHX6 gene in relation to the TS phenotype is warranted and suggest the intriguing hypothesis that different genetic factors may contribute to the etiology of TS in different populations, even within Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

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