Sarchiapone M.,University of Molise |
Mandelli L.,University of Molise |
Mandelli L.,University of Bologna |
Mandelli L.,National Health Research Institute |
And 30 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2014
Objectives: Anxiety and concerns in daily life may result in sleep problems and consistent evidence suggests that inadequate sleep has several negative consequences on cognitive performance, physical activity, and health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between mean hours of sleep per night, psychologic distress, and behavioral concerns. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the correlation between the number of hours of sleep per night and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), the Paykel Suicidal Scale (PSS), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was performed on 11,788 pupils (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 14.9 ± 0.9; 55.8% girls) from 11 different European countries enrolled in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) project. Results: The mean number of reported hours of sleep per night during school days was 7.7 (SD, ±1.3), with moderate differences across countries (r= 0.06; P< .001). A reduced number of sleeping hours (less than the average) was more common in girls (β= 0.10 controlling for age) and older pupils (β= 0.10 controlling for sex). Reduced sleep was found to be associated with increased scores on SDQ subscales of emotional (β= -0.13) and peer-related problems (β= -0.06), conduct (β= -0.07), total SDQ score (β= -0.07), anxiety (Z-SAS scores, β= -10), and suicidal ideation (PSS, β= -0.16). In a multivariate model including all significant variables, older age, emotional and peer-related problems, and suicidal ideation were the variables most strongly associated with reduced sleep hours, though female gender, conduct problems measured by the SDQ, and anxiety only showed modest effects (β= 0.03-0.04). Conclusions: Our study supports evidence that reduced hours of sleep are associated with potentially severe mental health problems in adolescents. Because sleep problems are common among adolescents partly due to maturational processes and changes in sleep patterns, parents, other adults, and adolescents should pay more attention to their sleep patterns and implement interventions, if needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study
PubMed | Evelina Childrens Hospital, University of Nottingham, Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, University of Cagliari and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2016
Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites.3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6-17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited:Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time.Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication.Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2.All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score.Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The studys website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general public.NCT01470261.
Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg |
Brunner R.,University of Heidelberg |
Parzer P.,University of Heidelberg |
Carli V.,National Health Research Institute |
And 24 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Indicated prevention of mental illness is an important public health concern among youth. The aim of this study was to establish a European school-based professional screening among adolescents, which included variables on both a broad range of risk-behaviours and psychopathology; and to investigate the indicative value of adolescent risk-behaviour and self-reported psychopathology on help-seeking and psychological problems that required subsequent mental healthcare. A two-stage professional screening approach was developed and performed within the multi-centre study "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE). The first stage of screening comprised a self-report questionnaire on a representative sample of 3,070 adolescents from 11 European countries. In the second stage, students deemed at-risk for mental health problems were evaluated using a semi-structured clinical interview performed by healthcare professionals. 61 % of participants (n = 1,865) were identified as being at-risk in stage one. In stage two, 384 participants (12.5 % of the original sample) were found to require subsequent mental healthcare during semi-structured, clinical assessment. Among those, 18.5 % of pupils were identified due to screening for psychopathology alone; 29.4 % due to screening for risk-behaviours alone; and 52.1 % by a combination of both. Young age and peer victimization increased help-seeking, while very low body mass index, depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse were the best predictors of referral to mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours significantly increased the number of detected students requiring subsequent mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours added significant value in identifying the significant amount of European pupils with mental health problems. Therefore, attention to adolescent risk-behaviours in addition to psychopathology is critical in facilitating prevention and early intervention. Identifying factors that increase compliance to clinical interviews are crucial in improving screening procedures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
Balazs J.,Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital |
Balazs J.,Eötvös Loránd University |
Miklosi M.,Semmelweis University |
Miklosi M.,Heim Pal Paediatric Hospital |
And 27 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013
Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, comprising 12,395 adolescents from 11 countries. Based on self-report, including Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS) were administered to students. Based on BDI-II, adolescents were divided into three groups: nondepressed, subthreshold-depressed and depressed; based on the SAS, they were divided into nonanxiety, subthreshold-anxiety and anxiety groups. Analyses of Covariance were conducted on SDQ scores to explore psychopathology of the defined groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between functional impairments, suicidality and subthreshold and full syndromes. Results: Thirty-two percent of the adolescents were subthreshold-anxious and 5.8% anxious, 29.2% subthreshold-depressed and 10.5% depressed, with high comorbidity. Mean scores of SDQ of subthreshold-depressed/ anxious were significantly higher than the mean scores of the nondepressed/nonanxious groups and significantly lower than those of the depressed/anxious groups. Both subthreshold and threshold-anxiety and depression were related to functional impairment and suicidality. Conclusions: Subthreshold-depression and subthreshold-anxiety are associated with an increased burden of disease and suicide risk. These results highlight the importance of early identification of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety to minimize suicide. Incorporating these subthreshold disorders into a diagnosis could provide a bridge between categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. © 2013 The Authors.
Brunner R.,University of Heidelberg |
Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg |
Kaess M.,Orygen Youth Health |
Parzer P.,University of Heidelberg |
And 27 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2014
Objectives To investigate the prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of occasional and repetitive direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB), such as self-cutting, -burning, -biting, -hitting, and skin damage by other methods, in representative adolescent samples from 11 European countries. Methods Cross-sectional assessment of adolescents was performed within the European Union funded project, Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE), which was conducted in 11 European countries. The representative sample comprised 12,068 adolescents (F/M: 6,717/5,351; mean age: 14.9 ± 0.89) recruited from randomly selected schools. Frequency of D-SIB was assessed by a modified 6-item questionnaire based on previously used versions of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). In addition, a broad range of demographic, social, and psychological factors was assessed. Results Overall lifetime prevalence of D-SIB was 27.6%; 19.7% reported occasional D-SIB and 7.8% repetitive D-SIB. Lifetime prevalence ranged from 17.1% to 38.6% across countries. Estonia, France, Germany, and Israel had the highest lifetime rates of D-SIB, while students from Hungary, Ireland, and Italy reported low rates. Suicidality as well as anxiety and depressive symptoms had the highest odds ratios for both occasional and repetitive D-SIB. There was a strong association of D-SIB with both psychopathology and risk-behaviors, including family related neglect and peer-related rejection/victimization. Associations between psychosocial variables and D-SIB were strongly influenced by both gender and country. Only a minor proportion of the adolescents who reported D-SIB ever received medical treatment. Conclusion These results suggest high lifetime prevalence of D-SIB in European adolescents. Prevalence as well as psychosocial correlates seems to be significantly influenced by both gender and country. These results support the need for a multidimensional approach to better understand the development of SIB and facilitate culturally adapted prevention/intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Durkee T.,Karolinska Institutet |
Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg |
Kaess M.,Orygen Youth Health |
Carli V.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 33 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2012
Aims: To investigate the prevalence of pathological internet use (PIU) and maladaptive internet use (MIU) among adolescents in 11 European countries in relation to demographic, social factors and internet accessibility. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: The 7th Framework European Union (EU) funded project, Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE), is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating interventions for risk behaviours among adolescents in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain, with Sweden serving as the coordinating centre. Participants: A total of 11956 adolescents (female/male: 6731/5225; mean age: 14.9±0.89) recruited from randomly selected schools within the 11 study sites. Measurements: Internet users were classified by gender into three categories: adaptive, maladaptive and pathological, based on their score in the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ). Findings: The overall prevalence of PIU was 4.4%; it was higher among males than females (5.2% versus 3.8%) and differed between countries (χ2=309.98; d.f.=20; P<0.001). PIU correlated significantly with mean hours online and male gender. The highest-ranked online activities were watching videos, frequenting chatrooms and social networking; significantly higher rates of playing single-user games were found in males and social networking in females. Living in metropolitan areas was associated with PIU. Students not living with a biological parent, low parental involvement and parental unemployment showed the highest relative risks of both MIU and PIU. Conclusions: Across a range of countries in Europe, using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction yields a prevalence of 'pathological internet use' of 4.4% among adolescents, but varies by country and gender; adolescents lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wasserman D.,Karolinska Institutet |
Hoven C.W.,Columbia University |
Wasserman C.,Columbia University |
Wasserman C.,University of Molise |
And 29 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014
Background Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. Methods The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11 110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Findings Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11 110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45  YAM, 43  ProfScreen, and 40  control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025), compared with the control group. 14 pupils (0·70%) reported incident suicide attempts at the 12 month follow-up in the YAM versus 34 (1·51%) in the control group, and 15 pupils (0·75%) reported incident severe suicidal ideation in the YAM group versus 31 (1·37%) in the control group. No participants completed suicide during the study period. Interpretation YAM was effective in reducing the number of suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation in school-based adolescents. These findings underline the benefit of this universal suicide preventive intervention in schools. Funding Coordination Theme 1 (Health) of the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, National Suicide Research Foundation, Innsbruck Medical University and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2016
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Youngs Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.
PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, National Suicide Research Foundation, Suicidology Institute and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2015
Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.