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Cotter P.,University College Cork | Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg | Corcoran P.,University College Cork | Parzer P.,University of Heidelberg | And 17 more authors.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Purpose: To screen and clinically interview European adolescents reporting current suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) and investigate attendance at the clinical interview. Methods: The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Project was carried out in 11 European countries. A baseline questionnaire was completed in school by 12,395 adolescents (mean age 14.9; SD 0.9). Those who screened positive for suicidality (attempting suicide and/or serious suicidal ideation or plans) in the past 2 weeks were invited to a clinical interview with a mental health professional. Results: Of the 12,395 adolescents, 4.2 % (n = 516) screened positive for current suicidality. The prevalence ranged from 1.1 % in Hungary to 7.7 % in Israel (p < 0.001). 37.6 % (n = 194) of those who screened positive subsequently attended the clinical interview. Female students were more likely to attend for interview (42.0 % versus 30.6 %, p = 0.010). The attendance rate varied considerably across countries, from 5.7 % in Italy to 96.7 % in France (p < 0.001). Improved attendance was associated with using school as the only interview setting (Mean attendance rate, MAR = 88 vs. 31 %, p = 0.006) and arranging the interview within 1 week of contacting the student (MAR = 64 vs. 23 %, p = 0.013). The greater the travel time to interview, the lower the attendance rate (Pearson’s r = −0.64, p = 0.034). Independent of the variation by country, at the individual level, adolescents with more depressive symptoms and a recent suicide attempt more often attended for interview. Conclusion: A high rate of current suicidality was found amongst European adolescents. However, the majority of these displayed limited help-seeking behaviour. Future studies should investigate ways of making screening programmes and other interventions more acceptable and accessible to young people, especially young males. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Carli V.,Karolinska Institutet | Carli V.,Collaborating Center for Research | Wasserman C.,Columbia University | Wasserman C.,University of Molise | And 29 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective. To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods. Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results: Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions: SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness of important interventions aimed at improving adolescent mental health and well-being, reducing risk-taking and self-destructive behaviour and preventing suicidality. Trial registration. US National Institute of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry (NCT00906620) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000214). © 2013 Carli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kaess M.,University of Heidelberg | Durkee T.,Karolinska Institutet | Brunner R.,University of Heidelberg | Carli V.,Karolinska Institutet | And 28 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

Wasserman D.,Karolinska Institutet | Hoven C.W.,Columbia University | Wasserman C.,Columbia University | Wasserman C.,University of Molise | And 29 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. Methods The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11 110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Findings Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11 110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025), compared with the control group. 14 pupils (0·70%) reported incident suicide attempts at the 12 month follow-up in the YAM versus 34 (1·51%) in the control group, and 15 pupils (0·75%) reported incident severe suicidal ideation in the YAM group versus 31 (1·37%) in the control group. No participants completed suicide during the study period. Interpretation YAM was effective in reducing the number of suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation in school-based adolescents. These findings underline the benefit of this universal suicide preventive intervention in schools. Funding Coordination Theme 1 (Health) of the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sarchiapone M.,University of Molise | Mandelli L.,University of Molise | Mandelli L.,University of Bologna | Mandelli L.,National Health Research Institute | And 29 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: Anxiety and concerns in daily life may result in sleep problems and consistent evidence suggests that inadequate sleep has several negative consequences on cognitive performance, physical activity, and health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between mean hours of sleep per night, psychologic distress, and behavioral concerns. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the correlation between the number of hours of sleep per night and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), the Paykel Suicidal Scale (PSS), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was performed on 11,788 pupils (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 14.9 ± 0.9; 55.8% girls) from 11 different European countries enrolled in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) project. Results: The mean number of reported hours of sleep per night during school days was 7.7 (SD, ±1.3), with moderate differences across countries (r= 0.06; P< .001). A reduced number of sleeping hours (less than the average) was more common in girls (β= 0.10 controlling for age) and older pupils (β= 0.10 controlling for sex). Reduced sleep was found to be associated with increased scores on SDQ subscales of emotional (β= -0.13) and peer-related problems (β= -0.06), conduct (β= -0.07), total SDQ score (β= -0.07), anxiety (Z-SAS scores, β= -10), and suicidal ideation (PSS, β= -0.16). In a multivariate model including all significant variables, older age, emotional and peer-related problems, and suicidal ideation were the variables most strongly associated with reduced sleep hours, though female gender, conduct problems measured by the SDQ, and anxiety only showed modest effects (β= 0.03-0.04). Conclusions: Our study supports evidence that reduced hours of sleep are associated with potentially severe mental health problems in adolescents. Because sleep problems are common among adolescents partly due to maturational processes and changes in sleep patterns, parents, other adults, and adolescents should pay more attention to their sleep patterns and implement interventions, if needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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