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McMillan M.,University of Adelaide | Kralik D.,Head Quality Research and Innovation | Porritt K.,University of Adelaide | Marshall H.,Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit VIRTU
JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports | Year: 2012

Objectives:1. To synthesise the best available evidence on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, for pregnant women, her foetus and the child up to six months of age. 2. To synthesise the best available evidence on the types and frequency of adverse events for pregnant women, her foetus and the child up to six months of age, associated with influenza vaccination during pregnancy. © 2012, Joanna Briggs Institute. All rights reserved. Source


Wang B.,University of Adelaide | Wang B.,Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit VIRTU | Haji Ali Afzali H.,University of Adelaide | Marshall H.,University of Adelaide | Marshall H.,Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit VIRTU
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Background: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) remains a serious public health concern due to a sustained high case fatality rate and morbidity in survivors. This study aimed to estimate the hospital service costs associated with IMD and variables associated with the highest costs in Australian children admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical details were obtained from medical records and associated inpatient costs were collected and inflated to 2011 Australian dollars using the medical and hospital services component of the Australian Consumer Price Index. Both unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for potential covariates and determine independent predictors of high costs and increased length of hospital stay. Results: Of 109 children hospitalised with IMD between May 2000 and April 2011, the majority were caused by serogroup B (70.6%). Presence of sequelae, serogroup B infection, male gender, infants less than one year of age, and previous medical diagnosis were associated with higher inpatient costs and length of stay (LOS) in hospital (p< 0.001) during the acute admissions. Children diagnosed with septicaemia had a longer predicted LOS (p= 0.033) during the acute admissions compared to those diagnosed with meningitis alone or meningitis with septicaemia. Serogroup B cases incurred a significantly higher risk of IMD related readmissions (IRR: 21.1, p= 0.008) for patients with sequelae. Serogroup B infection, male gender, diagnosis of septicaemia, infants less than one year of age, and no previous medical diagnosis were more likely to have higher inpatient costs and LOS during the IMD related readmissions for patients with sequelae (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Although IMD is uncommon, the disease severity and associated long-term sequelae result in high health care costs, which should be considered in meningococcal B vaccine funding considerations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang B.,University of Adelaide | Wang B.,Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit VIRTU | Clarke M.,Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit VIRTU | Afzali H.H.A.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess knowledge of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and concern about the disease in the South Australian Community including adolescents, adults, parents and non-parents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by face to face interviews in South Australia in 2012. Participants were scored on their knowledge and concern about IMD. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed with the survey data weighted by age and gender in accordance with 2011 Census data. Results: Of 5200 households randomly selected and stratified by metropolitan or rural location, 3055 participants were interviewed with a response rate of 60.3%. The majority were Australian born (74.2%, n=. 2267) with 31.8% (n=972) of those interviewed being parents, and 15.9% (n=487) adolescents (15-24 years). Almost a quarter of participants (23.5%, n=. 717) do not know what meningococcal disease is, with 9.1% (n=278) believing incorrectly that IMD is a viral infection. 36.6% (n=1114) had low overall knowledge of IMD. Adolescents (p<0.050), non-Australian born (p<0.001), low educational attainment (p=0.019), low household income (p=0.011), low/medium socio-economic status (p<0.050) or living in a metropolitan area (p=0.006) were more likely to have lower overall knowledge of IMD. Participants who were not parents (p<0.001), male gender (p<0.001), single (p<0.001), highly educated (p=0.022) or had high household income (p=0.015), had lower concern about IMD. Conclusion: Large community knowledge gaps for IMD were observed, particularly amongst adolescents and adults with low educational attainment and low socio-economic status. Improving community knowledge of IMD could help ensure optimal uptake of a new meningococcal vaccine. Our study results can help guide development of community tailored immunisation education programs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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