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Fort Washington, MD, United States

Bachelder E.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Bachelder E.M.,Ohio State University | Beaudette T.T.,University of California at Berkeley | Broaders K.E.,University of California at Berkeley | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2010

Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists induce potent innate immune responses and can be used in the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. However, access to TLRs can be challenging as exemplified by TLR 7, which is located intracellularly in endosomal compartments. To increase recognition and subsequent stimulatory effects of TLR 7, imiquimod was encapsulated in acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) microparticles. Ac-DEX, a water-insoluble and biocompatible polymer, is relatively stable at pH 7.4, but degrades rapidly under acidic conditions, such as those found in lysosomal vesicles. To determine the immunostimulatory capacity of encapsulated imiquimod, we compared the efficacy of free versus encapsulated imiquimod in activating RAW 264.7 macrophages, MH-S macrophages, and bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Encapsulated imiquimod significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α cytokine expression in macrophages relative to the free drug. Furthermore, significant increases were observed in classic macrophage activation markers (iNOS, PD1-L1, and NO) after treatment with encapsulated imiquimod over the free drug. Also, bone marrow derived dendritic cells produced significantly higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and MIP-1α as compared to their counterparts receiving free imiquimod. These results suggest that encapsulation of TLR ligands within Ac-DEX microparticles results in increased immunostimulation and potentially better protection from disease when used in conjunction with vaccine formulations. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Peine K.J.,Ohio State University | Bachelder E.M.,Ohio State University | Vangundy Z.,Ohio State University | Papenfuss T.,Ohio State University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2013

To enhance the immune activity of vaccine adjuvants polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and CpG acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) microparticles can be used. Ac-DEX is a biodegradable and water-insoluble polymer that degrades significantly faster at pH 5.0 (phagosomal pH) than at pH 7.4 and has tunable degradation rates that can range from hours to months. This is an ideal characteristic for delivery of an antigen and adjuvant within the lysosomal compartment of a phagocytic cell. We evaluated poly I:C and CpG encapsulated in Ac-DEX microparticles using RAW macrophages as a model antigen-presenting cell. These cells were cultured with poly I:C or CpG in their free form, encapsulated in a fast degrading Ac-DEX, in slow degrading Ac-DEX, or in the Food and Drug Administration-approved polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Ac-DEX had higher encapsulation efficiencies for both poly I:C and CpG than PLGA. Furthermore, poly I:C or CpG encapsulated in Ac-DEX also showed, in general, a significantly stronger immunostimulatory response than PLGA and unencapsulated CpG or poly I:C, which was indicated by a higher rate of nitric oxide release and increased levels of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ. Overall, we have illustrated a method for enhancing the delivery of these vaccine adjuvants to further enhance the development of Ac-DEX vaccine formulations. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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