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Brezar V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ruffin N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Richert L.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Surenaud M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2015

The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vaccination has been poorly investigated. We have reported that vaccination with ex vivo-generated dendritic-cells (DC) loaded with HIV-lipopeptides (LIPO-5-DC vaccine) in HIV-infected patients was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These responses and their relation to viral replication following analytical treatment interruption (ATI) were variable. Here, we investigated whether the presence of HIV-specific Tregs might explain these differences. Co-expression of CD25, CD134, CD39 and FoxP3 was used to delineate both antigen-specific Tregs and effectors T cells (Teffs). Median LIPO-5 specific-CD25+CD134+ polyfunctional T cells increased from 0.1% (IQR 0-0.3) before vaccination (week -4) to 2.1% (IQR 1.1-3.9) at week 16 following 4 immunizations (p=0.001) and were inversely correlated with maximum viral load following ATI (r=-0.77, p=0.001). Vaccinees who displayed lower levels of HIV-specific CD4+CD134+CD25+CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs responded better to the LIPO-5-DC vaccine. After vaccination, the frequency of HIV-specific Tregs decreased (from 69.3 at week -4 to 31.7% at week 16) and inversely correlated with HIV-specific IFN-γ-producing cells (r=-0.64, p=0.002). We show that therapeutic immunization skewed the HIV-specific response from regulatory to effector phenotype which impacts on the magnitude of viral replication following ATI.


Bernard-Stoecklin S.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Bernard-Stoecklin S.,University Paris - Sud | Bernard-Stoecklin S.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Gommet C.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | And 21 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

The mucosal events of HIV transmission have been extensively studied, but the role of infected cells present in the genital and rectal secretions, and in the semen, in particular, remains a matter of debate. As a prerequisite to a thorough in vivo investigation of the early transmission events through infected cells, we characterized in detail by multi-parameter flow cytometry the changes in macaque seminal leukocytes during SIVmac251 infection, focusing on T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Using immunocytofluorescence targeting SIV proteins and real-time quantitative PCR targeting SIV DNA, we investigated the nature of the infected cells on sorted semen leukocytes from macaques at different stages of infection. Finally, we cocultured semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages with a cell line permissive to SIV infection to assess their infectivity in vitro. We found that primary infection induced strong local inflammation, which was associated with an increase in the number of leukocytes in semen, both factors having the potential to favor cell-associated virus transmission. Semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages were productively infected at all stages of infection and were infectious in vitro. Lymphocytes had a mucosal phenotype and expressed activation (CD69 & HLA-DR) and migration (CCR5, CXCR4, LFA-1) markers. CD69 expression was increased in semen T cells by SIV infection, at all stages of infection. Macrophages predominated at all stages and expressed CD4, CCR5, MAC-1 and LFA-1. Altogether, we demonstrated that semen contains the two major SIV-target cells (CD4+ T cells and macrophages). Both cell types can be productively infected at all stages of SIV infection and are endowed with markers that may facilitate transmission of infection during sexual exposure. © 2013 Bernard-Stoecklin et al.


Tricot S.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Tricot S.,University Paris - Sud | Tricot S.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Meyrand M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 15 more authors.
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2015

The recent introduction of mass cytometry, a technique coupling a cell introduction system generating a stream of single cells with mass spectrometry, has greatly increased the number of parameters that can be measured per single cell. As with all new technology there is a need for dissemination of standardization and quality control procedures. Here, we characterize variations in sensitivity observed across the mass range of a mass cytometer, using different lanthanide tags. We observed a five-fold difference in lanthanide detection over the mass range and demonstrated that each instrument has its own sensitivity pattern. Therefore, the selection of lanthanide combinations is a key step in the establishment of a staining panel for mass cytometry-based experiments, particularly for multicenter studies. We propose the sensitivity pattern as the basis for panel design, instrument standardization and future implementation of normalization algorithms. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


El Costa H.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Quillay H.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Quillay H.,University Paris Diderot | Marlin R.,University Paris - Sud | And 15 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2016

Macrophages from the decidua basalis (dM), the main uterine mucosa during pregnancy, are weakly permissive to HIV-1 infection. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this natural control. We show, by using freshly purified decidual macrophages and ex vivo human decidual explants, that the local decidual environment influences dM differentiation and naturally protects these cells from HIV-1 infection. Interferon (IFN)-γ, present in the decidual tissue, contributes to maintenance of the dM phenotype and restricts HIV-1 infection by mechanisms involving the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1/Waf1. We also found that activation of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 expressed by dM reinforces the low permissivity of dM to HIV-1 by restricting viral replication and inducing secretion of cytokines in the decidual environment, including IFN-γ, that shape dM plasticity. A major challenge for HIV-1 eradication is to control infection of tissue-resident macrophages in the female reproductive tract. Our findings provide clues to the development of novel strategies to prevent HIV-1 macrophage infection.


Brezar V.,University Paris Est Creteil | Brezar V.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Tu W.J.,University of Canberra | Seddiki N.,University Paris Est Creteil | Seddiki N.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/offof robust and efficient effector (Teffs) or regulatory (Tregs) T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to the immunological synapse (IS) is instrumental for the formation of signaling complexes, which ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the IS where its formation induces altered signaling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-θ, suggesting that PKC-θ inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-θ plays a major role in the regulation of this balance. This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-θ in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs. © 2015 Brezar, Tu and Seddiki.


Ruffin N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ruffin N.,University Paris Est Creteil | Ruffin N.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Brezar V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 28 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2015

Objectives: HIV-1 replication depends on the state of cell activation and division. It is established that SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T cells. The modulation of SAMHD1 expression during T-cell activation and proliferation, however, remains unclear, as well as a role for SAMHD1 during HIV-1 pathogenesis. Methods: SAMHD1 expression was assessed in CD4+ T cells after their activation and in-vitro HIV-1 infection. We performed phenotype analyzes using flow cytometry on CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes from cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral treatment or not, and controls. Results: We show that SAMHD1 expression decreased during CD4+ T-cell proliferation in association with an increased susceptibility to in-vitro HIV-1 infection. Additionally, circulating memory CD4+ T cells are enriched in cells with low levels of SAMHD1. These SAMHD1low cells are highly differentiated, exhibit a large proportion of Ki67+ cycling cells and are enriched in T-helper 17 cells. Importantly, memory SAMHD1low cells were depleted from peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. We also found that follicular helper T cells present in secondary lymphoid organs lacked the expression of SAMHD1, which was accompanied by a higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro. Conclusion: We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4+ T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4+ T cells. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Hejblum B.P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hejblum B.P.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Hejblum B.P.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Hejblum B.P.,Baylor Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2015

Gene set analysis methods, which consider predefined groups of genes in the analysis of genomic data, have been successfully applied for analyzing gene expression data in cross-sectional studies. The time-course gene set analysis (TcGSA) introduced here is an extension of gene set analysis to longitudinal data. The proposed method relies on random effects modeling with maximum likelihood estimates. It allows to use all available repeated measurements while dealing with unbalanced data due to missing at random (MAR) measurements. TcGSA is a hypothesis driven method that identifies a priori defined gene sets with significant expression variations over time, taking into account the potential heterogeneity of expression within gene sets. When biological conditions are compared, the method indicates if the time patterns of gene sets significantly differ according to these conditions. The interest of the method is illustrated by its application to two real life datasets: an HIV therapeutic vaccine trial (DALIA-1 trial), and data from a recent study on influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. In the DALIA-1 trial TcGSA revealed a significant change in gene expression over time within 69 gene sets during vaccination, while a standard univariate individual gene analysis corrected for multiple testing as well as a standard a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for time series both failed to detect any significant pattern change over time. When applied to the second illustrative data set, TcGSA allowed the identification of 4 gene sets finally found to be linked with the influenza vaccine too although they were found to be associated to the pneumococcal vaccine only in previous analyses. In our simulation study TcGSA exhibits good statistical properties, and an increased power compared to other approaches for analyzing time-course expression patterns of gene sets. The method is made available for the community through an R package. © 2015 Hejblum et al.


Colson P.,Aix - Marseille University | Colson P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Ravaux I.,Center Hospitalo University Conception | Tamalet C.,Aix - Marseille University | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

The long-term spontaneous evolution of humans and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well characterized; many vertebrate species, including humans, exhibit remnants of other retroviruses in their genomes that question such possible endogenization of HIV. We investigated two HIV-infected patients with no HIV-related disease and no detection with routine tests of plasma HIV RNA or cell-associated HIV DNA. We used Sanger and deep sequencing to retrieve HIV DNA sequences integrated in the human genome and tested the host humoral and cellular immune responses. We noticed that viruses from both patients were inactivated by the high prevalence of the transformation of tryptophan codons into stop codons (25% overall (3-100% per gene) and 24% overall (0-50% per gene)). In contrast, the humoral and/or cellular responses were strong for one patient and moderate for the other, indicating that a productive infection occurred at one stage of the infection. We speculate that the stimulation of APOBEC, the enzyme group that exchanges G for A in viral nucleic acids and is usually inhibited by the HIV protein Vif, has been amplified and made effective from the initial stage of the infection. Furthermore, we propose that a cure for HIV may occur through HIV endogenization in humans, as observed for many other retroviruses in mammals, rather than clearance of all traces of HIV from human cells, which defines viral eradication. © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Brezar V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Brezar V.,University Paris Est Creteil | Brezar V.,Vaccine Research Institute VRI | Ruffin N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2014

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal in preventing autoimmunity. They play a major but still ambiguous role in cancer and viral infections. Functional studies of human Tregs are often hampered by numerous technical difficulties arising from imperfections in isolating and depleting protocols, together with the usual low cell number available from clinical samples. We standardized a simple procedure (Single Step Method, SSM), based on magnetic beads technology, in which both depletion and isolation of human Tregs with high purities are simultaneously achieved. SSM is suitable when using low cell numbers either fresh or frozen from both patients and healthy individuals. It allows simultaneous Tregs isolation and depletion that can be used for further functional work to monitor suppressive function of isolated Tregs (in vitro suppression assay) and also effector IFN-γ responses of Tregs-depleted cell fraction (OX40 assay).To our knowledge, there is no accurate standardized method for Tregs isolation and depletion in a clinical context. SSM could thus be used and easily standardized across different laboratories. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Vaccine Research Institute VRI and French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC immunology | Year: 2016

The Luminex bead-based multiplex assay is useful for quantifying immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Cross-comparisons of reagents for this technique from different suppliers have already been performed using serum or plasma but rarely with supernatants collected from antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we first describe an optimization protocol for cell culture including quantity of cells and culture duration to obtain reproducible cytokine and chemokine quantifications. Then, we compared three different Luminex kit suppliers.Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for a 2-days stimulation protocol were >0.8 for IFN and Perforin. The specific concentration was maximal after two or five days of stimulation, depending on the analyte, using 0.5 million PBMC per well, a cell quantity that gave the same level of specific cytokine secretion as 1.0 million. In the second part of the study, Luminex kits from Millipore showed a better working range than Bio-Rad and Ozyme ones. For tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated samples, the overall mean pooled coefficients of variation (CVs) for all donors and all cytokines was 17.2% for Bio-Rad, 19.4% for Millipore and 26.7% for Ozyme. Although the different kits gave cytokine concentrations that were generally compatible, there were discrepancies for particular cytokines. Finally, evaluation of precision and reproducibility of a 15-plex Millipore kit using a home-made internal control showed a mean intra-assay CV <13% and an inter-assay CV <18% for each cytokine concentration.A protocol with a single round of stimulation but with two time points gave the best results for assaying different cytokines. Millipore kits appear to be slightly more sensitive than those from Bio-Rad and Ozyme. However, we conclude that the panel of analytes that need to be quantified should be the main determinant of kit selection. Using an internal control we demonstrated that a 15-plex magnetic Milliplex kit displayed good precision and reproducibility. Our findings should help optimize assays for evaluating immune responses during the course of disease or infection, or in response to vaccine or therapy.

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