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Bunker Hill, CA, United States

Abedinpour P.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Baron V.T.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Chrastina A.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Chrastina A.,Proteogenomics Research Institute for Systems Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Hormonal ablation is the standard treatment for disseminated androgen-dependent prostate cancer. Although tumor growth is controlled at first, the tumor invariably recurs in the form of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study assessed the efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy that combines plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone, with androgen ablation. METHODS Viewing microscopy chambers were placed in the dorsal skinfold of mice. Syngeneic prostate tissue was grafted within the chambers and allowed to vascularize. H2B-GFP/PTEN-P2 prostate cancer cells were co-implanted on top of the grafted prostate tissue. Androgen ablation was achieved using surgical castration. Intact and castrated mice were administered plumbagin or sham treatment. Tumor growth, mitosis and apoptosis were monitored in real-time using fluorescent Intra-Vital Microscopy. The mechanism of action of plumbagin was explored using human and mouse prostate cancer cells. RESULTS Whereas both plumbagin and castration alone impeded tumor growth, only the combination of plumbagin and castration caused profound tumor regression in vivo, mostly due to increased apoptosis of the tumor cells. The cytotoxicity of plumbagin was not affected by androgens in vitro, suggesting that microenvironmental factors not present in culture play a crucial role in the combination effect. Plumbagin-induced cell death was mediated, at least in part, by activation of ERK and was due to generation of reactive oxygen species, because it was abolished by the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. CONCLUSION Androgen deprivation in combination with plumbagin may provide a significant improvement over androgen deprivation alone and deserves further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Abedinpour P.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Baron V.T.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Welsh J.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD | Borgstrom P.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego VRISD
Prostate | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND. Hormonal ablation is the standard of treatment for advanced androgen-dependent prostate cancer. Although tumor regression is usually achieved at first, the cancer inevitably evolves toward androgen-independence, in part because of the development of mechanisms of resistance and in part because at the tissue level androgen withdrawal is not fully attained. Current research efforts are focused on new therapeutic strategies that will increase the effectiveness of androgen withdrawal and delay recurrence. We used a syngeneic pseudo-orthotropic mouse model of prostate cancer to test the efficacy of combining androgen withdrawal with FDA-approved COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. METHODS. GFP-tagged TRAMP-C2 cells were co-implanted with prostate tissue in the dorsal chamber model and tumors were allowed to establish and vascularize. Tumor growth and angiogenesis were monitored in real-time using fluorescent intravital microscopy (IVM). Androgen withdrawal in mice was achieved using surgical castration or chemical hormonal ablation, alone or in combination with celecoxib (15 mg/kg, twice daily). RESULTS. Celecoxib alone decreased the growth of prostate tumors mostly by inducing mitotic failure, which resulted in increased apoptosis. Surprisingly, celecoxib did not possess significant angiostatic activity. Surgical or chemical castration prevented the growth of prostate tumors and this, on the other hand, was associated with disruption of the tumor vasculature. Finally, androgen withdrawal combined with celecoxib caused tumor regression through decreased angiogenesis and increased mitosis arrest and apoptosis. CONCLUSION. Celecoxib, a relatively safe COX-2-selective anti-inflammatory drug, significantly increases the efficacy of androgen withdrawal in vivo and warrants further investigation as a complement therapy for advanced prostate cancer. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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