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Miquel S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Miquel S.,Agro ParisTech | Beaumont M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beaumont M.,Agro ParisTech | And 7 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2015

This paper concerns the procedure and the scientific approach to obtain market authorization for a microorganism to be recognized as a novel food with a health claim. Microorganisms that have not been traditionally used during food production in Europe prior to 1997 are considered as novel foods, which should undergo an in-depth characterization and safety assessment before being authorized on the European market. If a novel food bacterium is claimed to provide a beneficial effect on health, these claims must also be investigated before they can be authorized. Some requirements to obtain novel food certification are shared with those required to obtain a health claim. Although regulation exists that deals with these issues for foods in general, bacteria in food raise a specific set of questions that are only minimally addressed in official documentation. We propose a framework and suggest a list of criteria that should be assessed to obtain marketing authorization and health claim for a bacterium in accordance with European health policy. © Miquel et al. Source


Chanson-Rolle A.,VAB nutrition | Meynier A.,Mondelez France R and D SAS | Aubin F.,Venn Life science SAS | Lappi J.,Pakkasmarja Ltd | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Due to the increasing evidence of their health benefits, whole grains are recommended for consumption worldwide. Such recommendations are, however, rarely quantitative. Our aim was to perform a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between whole grain consumption and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to support a recommendation on the daily consumption of whole grains. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review by searching three bibliographic databases. We included human studies addressing the relationship between whole grain consumption and T2D occurrence, and providing quantitative information on daily intake of whole grains. A dose-response meta-regression analysis between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence was performed, using a hierarchical mixed least square linear regression model. Eight observational studies were included (all but one prospective), with a total of 15,573 cases of T2D among 316,051 participants. Quantitative meta-regression demonstrated a significant linear inverse relationship between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence (P<0.0001), with an overall absolute reduction of 0.3% in the T2D rate for each additional 10 g of whole grain ingredient consumed daily. The association persisted when adjusted on sex, age, country, study design, follow up duration, and mode of report of whole grain intakes (as foods or ingredients). Conclusions The meta-regression model made it possible to estimate the decrease in T2D risk corresponding to various changes in whole grain intakes, and the results contribute to setting up quantitative recommendations. For instance, consuming three servings of whole grain foods (45 g of whole grain ingredients) daily would induce a 20% relative reduction in the T2D risk as compared to consuming a half serving (7.5 g of whole grain ingredients). These results should be considered for future recommendations, by considering the actual whole grain intake of the concerned populations. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42013006925). Copyright: © 2015 Chanson-Rolle et al. Source


Miquel-Kergoat S.,Wrigley Mars Inc. | Azais-Braesco V.,VAB nutrition | Burton-Freeman B.,University of California at Davis | Hetherington M.M.,University of Leeds
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and a meta-analysis of the effects of chewing on self-reported hunger. Objectives: To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Materials and methods: Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searches of reference lists, and from raw data collected from the figures in the articles. A total of 15 papers were identified that detailed 17 trials. All 15 papers were included in the systematic review; however, a further five studies were excluded from the meta-analysis because appropriate information on hunger ratings was not available. The meta-analysis was conducted on a total of 10 papers that detailed 13 trials. Results: Five of 16 experiments found a significant effect of chewing on satiation or satiety using self-report measures (visual analogue scales, VASs). Ten of 16 experiments found that chewing reduced food intake. Three of five studies showed that increasing the number of chews per bite increased relevant gut hormones and two linked this to subjective satiety. The meta-analysis found evidence of both publication bias and between study heterogeneity (IA2=93.4%, tau2=6.52, p<0.001) which decreased, but remained, when covariates were considered. Analysis of the heterogeneity found a substantial effect of the fasting period where the duration of fasting influenced the decrease in hunger due to chewing. Prolonged mastication significantly reduces self-reported hunger levels (hunger: -2.31 VAS point, 95% CI [-4.67, -1.38], p<0.001). Conclusions: Evidence currently suggests that chewing may decrease self-reported hunger and food intake, possibly through alterations in gut hormone responses related to satiety. Although preliminary, the results identify a need for additional research in the area. Focused, uniform, experimental designs are required to clearly understand the relationships that exist between mastication, appetite, satiety, food intake and, ultimately, body weight. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Braesco V.,VAB nutrition | Gauthier T.,UNIJUS | Bellisle F.,University of Paris 13
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Dietetique | Year: 2013

Summary Fruit juices and nectars are very little processed foods that are governed by a specific regulation (French decree 2003-838). In France, the most consumed fruit juices are "pure juice", coming from fruits only, simply squeezed and pasteurized. The consumption of fruit juices in France is moderate, averaging half a glass per day for children (110 mL) and a quarter of glass per day for adults (55 mL), mainly consumed during a structured meal (breakfast or afternoon snack). Fruit juices naturally contain nutrients from fruits which they come from (sugars, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, carotenoids) and benefit from most of their nutritional qualities. Consumption of fruit juices contributes to a balanced diet, as fruit juices are essential contributors to the intakes of the French population in several micronutrients, especially vitamin C (15 to 30% of contributions depending on age). The recommendations of the National Health and Nutrition Program (PNNS) state that a glass of fruit juice can contribute to one of the five daily servings of fruit and vegetables. © 2013 Societe francaise de nutrition. Source


Braesco V.,VAB nutrition | Drewnowski A.,University of Washington
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). © 2015, by the authors. Source

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