Clermont-Ferrand, France
Clermont-Ferrand, France

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Braesco V.,VAB nutrition | Drewnowski A.,University of Washington
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). © 2015, by the authors.


Chanson-Rolle A.,VAB nutrition | Meynier A.,Mondelez France R and D SAS | Aubin F.,Venn Life science SAS | Lappi J.,Pakkasmarja Ltd | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Due to the increasing evidence of their health benefits, whole grains are recommended for consumption worldwide. Such recommendations are, however, rarely quantitative. Our aim was to perform a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between whole grain consumption and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to support a recommendation on the daily consumption of whole grains. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review by searching three bibliographic databases. We included human studies addressing the relationship between whole grain consumption and T2D occurrence, and providing quantitative information on daily intake of whole grains. A dose-response meta-regression analysis between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence was performed, using a hierarchical mixed least square linear regression model. Eight observational studies were included (all but one prospective), with a total of 15,573 cases of T2D among 316,051 participants. Quantitative meta-regression demonstrated a significant linear inverse relationship between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence (P<0.0001), with an overall absolute reduction of 0.3% in the T2D rate for each additional 10 g of whole grain ingredient consumed daily. The association persisted when adjusted on sex, age, country, study design, follow up duration, and mode of report of whole grain intakes (as foods or ingredients). Conclusions The meta-regression model made it possible to estimate the decrease in T2D risk corresponding to various changes in whole grain intakes, and the results contribute to setting up quantitative recommendations. For instance, consuming three servings of whole grain foods (45 g of whole grain ingredients) daily would induce a 20% relative reduction in the T2D risk as compared to consuming a half serving (7.5 g of whole grain ingredients). These results should be considered for future recommendations, by considering the actual whole grain intake of the concerned populations. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42013006925). Copyright: © 2015 Chanson-Rolle et al.


Miquel-Kergoat S.,Wrigley Mars Inc. | Azais-Braesco V.,VAB Nutrition | Burton-Freeman B.,University of California at Davis | Hetherington M.M.,University of Leeds
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and a meta-analysis of the effects of chewing on self-reported hunger. Objectives: To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Materials and methods: Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searches of reference lists, and from raw data collected from the figures in the articles. A total of 15 papers were identified that detailed 17 trials. All 15 papers were included in the systematic review; however, a further five studies were excluded from the meta-analysis because appropriate information on hunger ratings was not available. The meta-analysis was conducted on a total of 10 papers that detailed 13 trials. Results: Five of 16 experiments found a significant effect of chewing on satiation or satiety using self-report measures (visual analogue scales, VASs). Ten of 16 experiments found that chewing reduced food intake. Three of five studies showed that increasing the number of chews per bite increased relevant gut hormones and two linked this to subjective satiety. The meta-analysis found evidence of both publication bias and between study heterogeneity (IA2=93.4%, tau2=6.52, p<0.001) which decreased, but remained, when covariates were considered. Analysis of the heterogeneity found a substantial effect of the fasting period where the duration of fasting influenced the decrease in hunger due to chewing. Prolonged mastication significantly reduces self-reported hunger levels (hunger: -2.31 VAS point, 95% CI [-4.67, -1.38], p<0.001). Conclusions: Evidence currently suggests that chewing may decrease self-reported hunger and food intake, possibly through alterations in gut hormone responses related to satiety. Although preliminary, the results identify a need for additional research in the area. Focused, uniform, experimental designs are required to clearly understand the relationships that exist between mastication, appetite, satiety, food intake and, ultimately, body weight. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Danone Nutricia Africa & Overseas, VAB nutrition, Nangui Abrogoua University, University of Yaounde I and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie | Year: 2015

Anemia and iron deficiency are major public health issues worldwide and particularly in Africa. Reliable information about their prevalence and associated factors is required to allow for effective actions. In this study, we used data from recent (2006-2012) large population health surveys, carried out in 11 French-speaking African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal). Hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed and demographic and health-related parameters were obtained from nation-representative samples of children aged 6-59 months. Anemia (Hb<11g/dL) was found in 72.4% of the children (60.2-87.8%), with no gender difference but a slightly lower incidence in older children (62% at age 4-5 years versus 85% at age 9 months), especially for the more severe forms (2.1% versus 8.7%, respectively). Anemia was only slightly but significantly affected by location (75.5% in rural areas versus 67.3% in towns), income (79.8% in lower quintile of income versus 62.3% in higher quintile), or maternal education (74.1% in children from non-educated mothers versus 62.4% in children whose mothers had secondary education). Nearly 50% of women of child-bearing age had anemia. In the countries that report this information, less than 50% (17-65%) of children consumed iron-rich foods regularly and only 12% (7.4-20.5%) received iron supplementation. Infection and parasitism are known to affect some markers of iron status, because of the inflammatory reaction, thereby making the diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. In the study countries, acute respiratory diseases and diarrhea affected 6.2 and 15.6% of children aged between 6 and 59 months, respectively; their distribution according to age and location is very different from the one of anemia, which is also the case for the distribution of malaria. It is thus likely that a large part of the anemia observed in young children is due to iron deficiency, although further research is needed to confirm this. This fully justifies the nationwide programs of iron fortification of flour, currently undergoing in most countries of French-speaking Africa. Their formal evaluation is still pending but the initial data suggest some efficacy, although far from optimal. It is thus likely that a more holistic approach, including iron fortification, actions against undernutrition and parasitism in children, and actions in favor of improving young womens iron and nutritional status, together with appropriate communication and education objectives, would be more effective.


PubMed | University of Washington and VAB nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality.To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3-14 years old) and adults (21 years old).Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age.Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 4.3 vs. 428.7 7.5 for children and 460.7 4.4 vs. 435.4 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01).In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS).


PubMed | French National Institute for Agricultural Research and VAB nutrition
Type: | Journal: Microbial cell factories | Year: 2015

This paper concerns the procedure and the scientific approach to obtain market authorization for a microorganism to be recognized as a novel food with a health claim. Microorganisms that have not been traditionally used during food production in Europe prior to 1997 are considered as novel foods, which should undergo an in-depth characterization and safety assessment before being authorized on the European market. If a novel food bacterium is claimed to provide a beneficial effect on health, these claims must also be investigated before they can be authorized. Some requirements to obtain novel food certification are shared with those required to obtain a health claim. Although regulation exists that deals with these issues for foods in general, bacteria in food raise a specific set of questions that are only minimally addressed in official documentation. We propose a framework and suggest a list of criteria that should be assessed to obtain marketing authorization and health claim for a bacterium in accordance with European health policy.


Chanson-Rolle A.,VAB nutrition | Aubin F.,Venn Life science | Braesco V.,VAB nutrition | Hamasaki T.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Kitakaze M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background The lactotripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) have been shown to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) in several populations, but the size of the effect varies among studies. We performed a meta-analysis including all published studies to evaluate the SBP-lowering effect of IPP/VPP in Japanese subjects more comprehensively. Methods and Findings Eligible randomized controlled trials were searched for within four bibliographic databases, including two Japanese ones. Eighteen studies (including a total of 1194 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. A random effect model using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator was used for the analysis. The analysis showed that consumption of IPP/VPP induced a significant reduction in SBP as compared with placebo in Japanese subjects, with an estimated effect of -5.63 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.87 to -4.39, P<0.0001) and no evidence of publication bias. A significant heterogeneity between series was evident, which could be explained by a significant influence of the baseline blood pressure status of the subjects, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP being stronger in hypertensive subjects (-8.35 mm Hg, P<0.0001) than in non-hypertensive subjects (-3.42mm Hg, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP remained significant when limiting the analysis to series that tested the usual doses of IPP/VPP consumed daily (below 5 mg/d), with estimated effects of -6.01 mm Hg in the overall population and -3.32 mm Hg in non-hypertensive subjects. Conclusions Results from this meta-analysis show that IPP/VPP lactotripeptides can significantly reduce office SBP in Japanese subjects with or without overt hypertension, and for doses that can potentially be consumed as an everyday supplement. This suggests that these peptides could play a role in controlling blood pressure in Japanese subjects. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42014014322). © 2015 Mohammad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Mondelez France R&D SAS, University of Eastern Finland, Venn Life science SAS and VAB nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Due to the increasing evidence of their health benefits, whole grains are recommended for consumption worldwide. Such recommendations are, however, rarely quantitative. Our aim was to perform a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between whole grain consumption and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to support a recommendation on the daily consumption of whole grains.We conducted a systematic review by searching three bibliographic databases. We included human studies addressing the relationship between whole grain consumption and T2D occurrence, and providing quantitative information on daily intake of whole grains. A dose-response meta-regression analysis between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence was performed, using a hierarchical mixed least square linear regression model. Eight observational studies were included (all but one prospective), with a total of 15,573 cases of T2D among 316,051 participants. Quantitative meta-regression demonstrated a significant linear inverse relationship between whole grain intake and T2D occurrence (P<0.0001), with an overall absolute reduction of 0.3% in the T2D rate for each additional 10 g of whole grain ingredient consumed daily. The association persisted when adjusted on sex, age, country, study design, follow up duration, and mode of report of whole grain intakes (as foods or ingredients).The meta-regression model made it possible to estimate the decrease in T2D risk corresponding to various changes in whole grain intakes, and the results contribute to setting up quantitative recommendations. For instance, consuming three servings of whole grain foods (45 g of whole grain ingredients) daily would induce a 20% relative reduction in the T2D risk as compared to consuming a half serving (7.5 g of whole grain ingredients). These results should be considered for future recommendations, by considering the actual whole grain intake of the concerned populations. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42013006925).


PubMed | Venn Life science, Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute and VAB nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The lactotripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) have been shown to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) in several populations, but the size of the effect varies among studies. We performed a meta-analysis including all published studies to evaluate the SBP-lowering effect of IPP/VPP in Japanese subjects more comprehensively.Eligible randomized controlled trials were searched for within four bibliographic databases, including two Japanese ones. Eighteen studies (including a total of 1194 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis. A random effect model using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator was used for the analysis. The analysis showed that consumption of IPP/VPP induced a significant reduction in SBP as compared with placebo in Japanese subjects, with an estimated effect of -5.63 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.87 to -4.39, P<0.0001) and no evidence of publication bias. A significant heterogeneity between series was evident, which could be explained by a significant influence of the baseline blood pressure status of the subjects, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP being stronger in hypertensive subjects (-8.35 mm Hg, P<0.0001) than in non-hypertensive subjects (-3.42mm Hg, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP remained significant when limiting the analysis to series that tested the usual doses of IPP/VPP consumed daily (below 5 mg/d), with estimated effects of -6.01 mm Hg in the overall population and -3.32 mm Hg in non-hypertensive subjects.Results from this meta-analysis show that IPP/VPP lactotripeptides can significantly reduce office SBP in Japanese subjects with or without overt hypertension, and for doses that can potentially be consumed as an everyday supplement. This suggests that these peptides could play a role in controlling blood pressure in Japanese subjects. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42014014322).


Gerard N.,University of Auvergne | Chanson-Rolle A.,VAB nutrition | Rock E.,University of Auvergne | Brachet P.,University of Auvergne
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Scope: Mild folate deficiency and subsequently elevated plasma level of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases in adults. Conversely, high intakes of folic acid (FA) may have beneficial effects on vascular function, presumably in part through homocysteine lowering. However, these effects have not yet been translated in terms of prevention or treatment of vascular pathologies. Besides, the complex biologic perturbation induced by variations of the folate supply is still not fully deciphered. We thus carried out a proteomic analysis of the aorta of adult rats after a dietary FA depletion or supplementation. Methods and results: Nine month-old rats were fed a FA-depleted, FA-supplemented or control diet for 8 weeks. Total proteins from adventitia-free aortas were separated by 2DE and differentially expressed proteins were identified by MS. FA depletion or supplementation resulted in significantly changed abundance of 29 spots (p < 0.05), of which 20 proteins were identified. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that most of these proteins are involved in cytoskeleton-related processes important to cell function/maintenance, assembly/organization, and movement. Conclusion: Our proteomic study supports that expression of proteins essential to vascular structure and, presumably, function is modulated by high intake as well as deprivation of FA. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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