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Salt Lake City, UT, United States

DuVall S.L.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System | DuVall S.L.,University of Utah | Fraser A.M.,University of Utah | Rowe K.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2012

Objective: Electronically linked datasets have become an important part of clinical research. Information from multiple sources can be used to identify comorbid conditions and patient outcomes, measure use of healthcare services, and enrich demographic and clinical variables of interest. Innovative approaches for creating research infrastructure beyond a traditional data system are necessary. Materials and methods: Records from a large healthcare system's enterprise data warehouse (EDW) were linked to a statewide population database, and a master subject index was created. The authors evaluate the linkage, along with the impact of missing information in EDW records and the coverage of the population database. The makeup of the EDW and population database provides a subset of cancer records that exist in both resources, which allows a cancerspecific evaluation of the linkage. Results: About 3.4 million records (60.8%) in the EDW were linked to the population database with a minimum accuracy of 96.3%. It was estimated that approximately 24.8% of target records were absent from the population database, which enabled the effect of the amount and type of information missing from a record on the linkage to be estimated. However, 99% of the records from the oncology data mart linked; they had fewer missing fields and this correlated positively with the number of patient visits. Discussion and conclusion: A general-purpose research infrastructure was created which allows disease-specific cohorts to be identified. The usefulness of creating an index between institutions is that it allows each institution to maintain control and confidentiality of their own information. Source


Kaafarani H.M.A.,VA Boston Healthcare System | Smith T.S.,Eastern Colorado Healthcare System | Neumayer L.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System | Berger D.H.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) accounts for more than 85% of cholecystectomies. Factors prompting open cholecystectomy (OC) or conversion from LC to OC (CONV) are not completely understood. Methods: Prospectively collected data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) were combined with administrative data to identify patients undergoing cholecystectomy from October 2005 to October 2008. Three cohorts were defined: LC, OC, and CONV. Using logistic hierarchical modeling, we identified predictors of the choice of OC and the decision to CONV. Results: A total of 11,669 patients underwent cholecystectomy at 117 VA hospitals, including 9,530 LC (81.7%). While the rate of conversion from LC to OC remained stable over the study period (9.0% overall), the percentage of OC decreased from 11.5% in 2006 to 10.1% in 2007 and 8.9% in 2008 (P = .0002). Compared with LC, the OC cohort had more comorbidities (35 of 41 preoperative characteristics, all P <.05), a higher 30-day morbidity rate (18.7% vs 4.8%. P <.0001), and a higher 30-day mortality rate (2.4% vs .4%, P <.0001). American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, patient comorbidities (eg, ascites, bleeding disorders, pneumonia) and functional status predicted a choice of OC. Age, preoperative albumin, previous abdominal surgery and emergency status predicted OC and CONV (all P <.05). A higher hospital conversion rate was independently predictive of OC (odds ratio [1% rate increase]: 1.05 [1.02-1.07]; P = .0004). Conclusion: In the last 3 years, there has been a trend towards performing fewer OCs in VA hospitals. More patient comorbidities and higher hospital-level conversion rates are predictive of the choice to perform or convert to OC. Source


Martinson A.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System | Craner J.,Mayo Medical School | Sigmon S.,University of Maine, United States
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2016

Background: Sexual trauma can lead to longstanding effects on individuals' intimacy functioning. The current study aimed to assess hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., cortisol reactivity) prior to (-min), during (+15, +30, +45 min), and following (+60 min) an experimental manipulation of emotional closeness in a sample of women survivors of sexual trauma with varying levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology versus controls. Methods: Participants included 50 women, which were divided into 2 groups on the basis of a structured clinical interview: 26 women with a history of sexual trauma with and without PTSD (sexual trauma group), and 24 women without a history of sexual trauma or PTSD (controls). Participants came into the lab and participated in a 45 min emotional closeness exercise with a male confederate and completed self-report questionnaires of closeness, state anxiety/depression, and cortisol assays at the aforementioned time points. Results: Women with a history of sexual trauma exhibited a blunted cortisol response and greater anxious mood in reaction to the intimacy induction task compared to controls. Results also demonstrated that, unexpectedly, PTSD symptom severity scores among sexual trauma survivors were not associated with differential cortisol responding to the task compared to controls. Conclusions: Adaptive responses to stress are characterized by a relatively rapid cortisol increase followed by a steady decline. The results of this study demonstrated that women with a history of sexual trauma, in contrast, displayed a blunted cortisol response to an intimacy induction task. Both controls and women with a history of sexual trauma reported increased feelings of closeness to the male confederate in response to the intimacy induction task, suggesting that survivors were able to achieve similar adaptive feelings of intimacy when provided with the right conditions. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wambaugh J.L.,University of Utah | Mauszycki S.,University of Utah | Wright S.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System
Aphasiology | Year: 2014

Background: Despite advances in the development and testing of therapies for verb retrieval impairments in aphasia, generalisation effects of treatment remain a challenge. Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA) is a word retrieval treatment that has been reported to result in generalised responding to untrained object names with persons with aphasia. The theorised therapeutic mechanisms of SFA appeared to be appropriate for facilitating retrieval of trained and untrained action names.Aims: This investigation was designed to extend pilot research in which SFA was applied to verb retrieval. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the acquisition and response generalisation effects of SFA applied to action naming with four persons with chronic aphasia. Additional purposes were to examine changes in production of content in discourse and to explore the correspondence of accuracy of naming during treatment to probe performance.Methods & Procedures: SFA was modified slightly to be appropriate for application to action naming as opposed to object naming; several feature categories were changed, but all other procedures were retained. Treatment was applied sequentially to two sets of action names in the context of multiple baseline designs across behaviours and participants. Accuracy of naming of trained and untrained actions in probes was measured repeatedly throughout all phases of the design. Production of correct information units (CIUs) in discourse was measured prior to and following treatment. The relationship of probe-naming performance to naming performance during treatment sessions was examined using correlational analyses.Outcomes & Results: Increased accuracy of naming of trained action names was associated with treatment for three of the four participants. The remaining participant did not demonstrate improvement in naming on probes, despite some gains during treatment. Generalisation to untrained action names did not occur for any of the participants. Increases in CIU production were observed for only one of the participants. For the participants with positive naming outcomes, probe performance correlated well with naming performance during treatment. For the participant who demonstrated some improvements in treatment, but did not show gains in naming on probes, weak correlations were obtained.Conclusions: SFA appears to have potential for promoting improved action naming in aphasia. However, more research is warranted to explore treatment modifications to promote generalisation. Correlational analyses indicated that gains in naming during treatment may not always be reflected in probe performance and thus, require verification through probing in non-treatment conditions. © 2013 This work was authored as part of Contributor's official duties as an employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105 no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. law. Source


Nelson R.E.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System | Samore M.H.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System | Smith K.J.,University of Pittsburgh | Harbarth S.,University of Geneva | Rubin M.A.,VA Salt Lake City Health Care System
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

We compared the cost-effectiveness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) programme of active surveillance plus decolonization with the current Veterans Health Administration (VHA) strategy of active surveillance alone, as well as a common strategy of no surveillance. A decision-analytical model was developed for an inpatient stay time horizon, using the VHA's perspective. Model inputs were taken from published literature where available, and supplemented with expert opinion when necessary. Effectiveness outcomes were hospital-acquired MRSA infections and deaths avoided. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. In the base-case analysis, the strategy of active surveillance plus decolonization dominated (i.e. lower cost and greater effectiveness) both the comparison strategies of active surveillance and no surveillance. In addition, the active surveillance strategy dominated the strategy of no surveillance. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated that at low levels of direct benefit of decolonization (1-4%), the strategy of active surveillance plus decolonization would no longer be dominant. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, active surveillance plus decolonization dominated both the other two strategies, and the active surveillance strategy dominated no surveillance in all of 1000 Monte Carlo simulations. These results provide a strong economic argument for adding an MRSA decolonization protocol to the current VHA active surveillance strategy. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

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