VA Research

San Antonio, TX, United States

VA Research

San Antonio, TX, United States
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Mandal C.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ganapathy S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Gorin Y.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Mahadev K.,University of Pennsylvania | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) promotes differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells to mature osteoblasts that form healthy bone. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation. The antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) and the flavoprotein enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor DPI (diphenyleneiodonium) prevented BMP-2-stimulated alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralized bone nodule formation in mouse 2T3 pre-osteoblasts. BMP-2 elicited a rapid generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) concomitant with increased activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. NAC andDPI inhibited BMP-2-induced ROS production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity respectively. NAD(P)H oxidases display structurally similar catalytic subunits (Nox1-5) with differential expression in various cells. We demonstrate that 2T3 pre-osteoblasts predominantly express the Nox4 isotype of NAD(P)H oxidase. To extend this finding, we tested the functional effects of Nox4. Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant-negative Nox4 inhibited BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. BMP-2 promotes expression of BMP-2 for maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype. NAC and DPI significantly blocked BMP-2-stimulated expression of BMP2 mRNA and protein due to a decrease in BMP2 gene transcription. Dominant-negative Nox4 also mimicked this effect of NAC and DPI. Our results provide the first evidence for a new signalling pathway linking BMP-2-stimulated Nox4-derived physiological ROS to BMP-2 expression and osteoblast differentiation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.


Mandal C.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Drissi H.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Ghosh Choudhury G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh Choudhury G.,Geriatric Research | And 3 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2010

Osterix (Osx), a BMP-2-regulated transcription factor, controls expression of genes essential for osteoblast differentiation. Using progressive deletion of the Osx promoter, we characterized a Smad binding element (SBE) between -552 and -839 bp from its transcription start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed binding and in vivo recruitment of Smads 1 and 5 to the Osx SBE. Inactivation of PI 3-kinase by the pharmacologic inhibitor Ly294002 or by dominant negative (DN) enzyme significantly blocked BMP-2-induced Osx protein and mRNA expression and Osx transcription. Finally, both DN PI 3-kinase and DN Akt significantly attenuated Smad 5-dependent transcription of Osx, demonstrating the first evidence for a concerted action of PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling with BMP-specific Smads for expression of Osx. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Mandal C.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Dey N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Choudhury G.G.,VA Research | And 4 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Increasing evidence shows the beneficial effects of fish oil on breast cancer growth and invasion in vitro and in animal models. Expression of CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) by breast cancer cells acts as potent activator of malignancy and metastasis. In this report, we used two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, to show that the bioactive fish oil component DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) inhibits expression of CSF-1 and its secretion from these cancer cells. We found that the tumor suppressor protein PTEN regulates CSF-1 expression through PI 3 kinase/Akt signaling via a transcriptional mechanism. The enhanced abundance of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in breast cancer cells contributes to the growth and metastasis. Interestingly, DHA significantly inhibited expression of miR-21. miR-21 Sponge, which derepresses the miR-21 targets, markedly decreased expression of CSF-1 and its secretion. Furthermore, miR-21-induced upregulation of CSF-1 mRNA and its transcription were prevented by expression of PTEN mRNA lacking 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and miR-21 recognition sequence. Strikingly, miR-21 reversed DHA-forced reduction of CSF-1 expression and secretion. Finally, we found that expression of miR-21 as well as CSF-1 was significantly attenuated in breast tumors of mice receiving a diet supplemented with fish oil. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the therapeutic function of fish oil diet that blocks miR-21, thereby increasing PTEN levels to prevent expression of CSF-1 in breast cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Mandal C.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Yoneda T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Choudhury G.G.,VA Research | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The data derived from epidemiological and animal models confirm a beneficial effect of fish oil (rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) in the amelioration of tumor growth and progression, including breast cancer. The breast cancer patients often develop bone metastasis evidenced by osteolytic lesions, leading to severe pain and bone fracture. Using a mouse model of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell metastasis to bone, here we show that fish oil diet enriched in DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) prevents the formation of osteolytic lesions in bone, indicating suppression of cancer cell metastasis to bone. These results are supported by our data showing both DHA and EPA significantly attenuate the migration/invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in culture. The mechanism that limits breast cancer cells to selective metastasis to bone remains hitherto unexplored. Aberrant increased expression of CD44 is associated with generation of cancer stem cells, which contribute to metastasis of breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that DHA and EPA significantly inhibit the expression of CD44 protein and mRNA by a transcriptional mechanism. Furthermore, we show markedly reduced levels of CD44 mRNA and protein in the tumors of mice, which were fed fish oil diet than those in control diet. Our data provide the first evidence for a salutary effect of fish oil on breast cancer metastasis to bone. Our results identify a novel function of the fish oil active components, DHA and EPA, which target the cell-intrinsic pro-metastatic molecule CD44 to inhibit migration/invasion. © 2010.


Das F.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,VA Research | Bera A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2013

Transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ)-induced canonical signal transduction is involved in glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy; however, the role played by the noncanonical TGFβ signaling remains largely unexplored. TGFβ time-dependently stimulated eIF4E phosphorylation at Ser-209 concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2) and MEK (mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase) in mesangial cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 by MEK inhibitor or by expression of dominant negative Erk2 blocked eIF4E phosphorylation, resulting in attenuation of TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and mesangial cell hypertrophy. Expression of constitutively active (CA) MEK was sufficient to induce protein synthesis and hypertrophy similar to those induced by TGFβ. Pharmacological or dominant negative inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinase decreased MEK/Erk1/2 phosphorylation leading to suppression of eIF4E phosphorylation. Inducible phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser-209 is mediated by Mnk-1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-integrating kinase-1). Both PI 3 kinase and Erk1/2 promoted phosphorylation of Mnk-1 in response to TGFβ. Dominant negative Mnk-1 significantly inhibited TGFβ-stimulated protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Interestingly, inhibition of mTORC1 activity, which blocks dissociation of eIF4E-4EBP-1 complex, decreased TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of eIF4E without any effect on Mnk-1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutant eIF4E S209D, which mimics phosphorylated eIF4E, promoted protein synthesis and hypertrophy similar to TGFβ. These results were confirmed using phosphorylation deficient mutant of eIF4E. Together our results highlight a significant role of dissociation of 4EBP-1-eIF4E complex for Mnk-1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4E. Moreover, we conclude that TGFβ-induced noncanonical signaling circuit involving PI 3 kinase-dependent Mnk-1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser-209 is required to facilitate mesangial cell hypertrophy. J. Cell. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bera A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,VA Research | Dey N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 8 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Das F.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,VA Research | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Kasinath B.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

eEF2 phosphorylation is under tight control to maintain mRNA translation elongation. We report that TGFβ activates eEF2 by decreasing eEF2 phosphorylation and simultaneously increasing eEF2 kinase phosphorylation. Remarkably, inhibition of Erk1/2 blocked the TGFβ-induced dephosphorylation and phosphorylation of eEF2 and eEF2 kinase. TGFβ increased phosphorylation of p90Rsk in an Erk1/2-dependent manner. Inactive p90Rsk reversed TGFβ-inhibited phosphorylation of eEF2 and suppressed eEF2 kinase activity. Finally, inactive p90Rsk significantly attenuated TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy of mesangial cells. These results present the first evidence that TGFβ utilizes the two layered kinase module Erk/p90Rsk to activate eEF2 for increased protein synthesis during cellular hypertrophy. © 2010.


Das F.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Dey N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Venkatesan B.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Kasinath B.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 6 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2011

The Akt kinase signaling pathway is frequently deregulated in many human diseases including cancer, autoimmune disease and diabetes. In nephropathy, associated with diabetes, increased Akt signal transduction results in glomerular especially mesangial cell hypertrophy. The mechanism of Akt activation by elevated glucose is poorly understood. The oncogene DJ-1 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease and in culture. We identified DJ-1 to increase in response to high glucose in renal glomerular mesangial cells concomitant with an increase in phosphorylation of Akt in a time-dependent manner. Plasmid-derived overexpression as well as downregulation of DJ-1 by siRNA showed the requirement of this protein in high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The tumor suppressor protein PTEN acts as a negative regulator of Akt activation. Interestingly, DJ-1 was associated with PTEN and this interaction was significantly increased in response to high glucose. High glucose-induced increase in DJ-1 promoted phosphorylation of the PRAS40, a negative regulator of TORC1 kinase activity, resulting in activating and inactivating phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1, respectively. Furthermore, DJ-1 increased protein synthesis and hypertrophy of mesangial cells. Our results provide evidence for a unique mechanism whereby DJ-1 induces Akt/PRAS40/TORC1-mediated hypertrophy in response to high glucose. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Ghosh-Choudhury N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Mandal C.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,VA Research | Ghosh Choudhury G.,VA Research | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2010

Sustained activation of Akt kinase acts as a focal regulator to increase cell growth and survival, which causes tumorigenesis including breast cancer. Statins, potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, display anticancer activity. The molecular mechanisms by which statins block cancer cell growth are poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the tumors derived from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell xenografts, simvastatin significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt with concomitant attenuation of the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl XL. In many cancer cells, Bcl XL is a target of NFκB. Simvastatin inhibited the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of NFκB resulting in marked reduction in transcription of Bcl XL. Signals transmitted by anti-neoplastic mechanism implanted in the cancer cells serve to obstruct the initial outgrowth of tumors. One such mechanism represents the action of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN, which negatively regulates Akt kinase activity. We provide the first evidence for significantly increased levels of PTEN in the tumors of simvastatin-administered mice. Importantly, simvastatin markedly prevented binding of NFκB to the two canonical recognition elements, NFRE-1 and NFRE-2 present in the PTEN promoter. Contrary to the transcriptional suppression of Bcl XL, simvastatin significantly increased the transcription of PTEN. Furthermore, expression of NFκB p65 subunit inhibited transcription of PTEN, resulting in reduced protein expression, which leads to enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, our data present a novel bifaceted mechanism where simvastatin acts on a nodal transcription factor NFκB, which attenuates the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl XL and simultaneously derepresses the expression of anti-proliferative/proapoptotic tumor suppressor PTEN to prevent breast cancer cell growth. © 2010.


Dey N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Bera A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Das F.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ghosh-Choudhury N.,VA Research | And 6 more authors.
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2015

High glucose milieu inhibits PTEN expression to activate Akt kinase and induces glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression in diabetic nephropathy. Specific mechanism by which high glucose inhibits PTEN expression is not clear. We found that high glucose increased the expression of the microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in mesangial cells. Using a sensor plasmid with 3'UTR-driven luciferase, we showed PTEN as a target of miR-26a in response to high glucose. Overexpression of miR-26a reduced the PTEN protein levels resulting in increased Akt kinase activity similar to high glucose treatment. In contrast, anti-miR-26a reversed high glucose-induced suppression of PTEN with concomitant inhibition of Akt kinase activity. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40 regulates mTORC1, which is necessary for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression. Inhibition of high glucose-induced miR-26a blocked phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40, which lead to suppression of phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1, two substrates of mTORC1. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-26a induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and increased fibronectin and collagen I (α2) expression similar to that observed with the cells incubated with high glucose. Anti-miR-26a inhibited these phenomena in response to high glucose. Together our results provide the first evidence for the involvement of miR-26a in high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression. These data indicate the potential therapeutic utility of anti-miR-26a for the complications of diabetic kidney disease. © 2015.

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