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Meier D.T.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | Meier D.T.,University of Washington | Morcos M.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | Morcos M.,University of Washington | And 8 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis: Amyloid deposition and inflammation are characteristic of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether islet amyloid formation is required for the development of islet inflammation in vivo. Methods: Human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates (the latter incapable of forming islet amyloid) were fed a low-fat (10%) or high-fat (60%) diet for 12 months; high-fat feeding induces islet amyloid formation in transgenic mice. At the conclusion of the study, glycaemia, beta cell function, islet amyloid deposition, markers of islet inflammation and islet macrophage infiltration were measured. Results: Fasting plasma glucose levels did not differ by diet or genotype. Insulin release in response to i.v. glucose was significantly greater in both high vs low fat groups, and significantly lower in both transgenic compared with non-transgenic groups. Only high-fat-fed transgenic mice developed islet amyloid and showed a trend towards reduced beta cell area. Compared with islets from low-fat-fed transgenic or high-fat-fed non-transgenic mice, islets of high-fat-fed transgenic mice displayed a significant increase in the expression of genes encoding chemokines (Ccl2, Cxcl1), macrophage/dendritic cell markers (Emr1, Itgax), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components (Nlrp3, Pycard, Casp1) and proinflammatory cytokines (Il1b, Tnf, Il6), as well as increased F4/80 staining, consistent with increased islet inflammation and macrophage infiltration. Conclusions/interpretation: Our results indicate that islet amyloid formation is required for the induction of islet inflammation in this long-term high-fat-diet model, and thus could promote beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes via islet inflammation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).


Figlewicz D.P.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | Figlewicz D.P.,University of Washington | Jay J.L.,University of Washington | West C.H.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | And 2 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2014

Evidence from experimental models has suggested that acute activation of brain stress and anxiety pathways impacts subsequent behaviors that are mediated or modulated by limbic circuitry. There have been limited investigations of prior or chronic activation of these pathways on subsequent limbic-mediated behaviors. In this study, we tested whether recurrent administration of the anxiogenic compound yohimbine (YOH) could have post-injection effects on brain activation, stress hormones, and performance in sucrose self-administration and startle response paradigms. Rats received six injections across two weeks of either 2. mg/kg YOH or saline. Behavioral evaluation confirmed the continued efficacy of the YOH regimen, and increased adrenal corticosterone (CORT) was observed. Several days following YOH or SAL administration, cFos, CORT and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and behavioral performance were measured. cFos was elevated post-YOH in the hippocampus; ventral tegmental area/zona inserta; and central and medial nuclei of the amygdala. This activation is consistent with a sustained effect of YOH to activate fear and anxiety circuitries in the CNS. CORT but not ACTH was elevated in the YOH-rats following startle testing. Self-administration and startle tests suggested an increase of non-specific activity in the post-YOH rats; there was no increase in sucrose self-administration or startle response per se. Our findings suggest that recurrent YOH administration may prove a useful and reliable model for simulating recurrent stress/anxiety, and that enhancements to the paradigm such as higher or more frequent dosing of YOH could yield stronger or more extensive behavioral effects. © 2014 .


Figlewicz D.P.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | Figlewicz D.P.,University of Washington | Bennett-Jay J.L.,University of Washington | Kittleson S.,VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151 | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

We have previously reported that administration of insulin into the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus decreases motivation for sucrose, assessed by a self-administration task, in rats. Because the pattern of central nervous system (CNS) activation in association with sucrose self-administration has not been evaluated, in the present study, we measured expression of c-Fos as an index of neuronal activation. We trained rats to bar-press for sucrose, according to a fixed-ratio (FR) or progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and mapped expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the CNS, compared with c-Fos expression in handled controls. We observed a unique expression of c-Fos in the medial hypothalamus (the arcuate, paraventricular, retrochiasmatic, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei) in association with the onset of PR performance, and expression of c-Fos in the lateral hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in association with the onset of FR performance. c-Fos expression was increased in the nucleus accumbens of both FR and PR rats. Our study emphasizes the importance of both hypothalamic energy homeostasis circuitry and limbic circuitry in the performance of a food reward task. Given the role of the medial hypothalamus in regulation of energy balance, our study suggests that this circuitry may contribute to reward regulation within the larger context of energy homeostasis.


PubMed | VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151, University of Washington and University of Latvia
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2014

Evidence from experimental models has suggested that acute activation of brain stress and anxiety pathways impacts subsequent behaviors that are mediated or modulated by limbic circuitry. There have been limited investigations of prior or chronic activation of these pathways on subsequent limbic-mediated behaviors. In this study, we tested whether recurrent administration of the anxiogenic compound yohimbine (YOH) could have post-injection effects on brain activation, stress hormones, and performance in sucrose self-administration and startle response paradigms. Rats received six injections across two weeks of either 2mg/kg YOH or saline. Behavioral evaluation confirmed the continued efficacy of the YOH regimen, and increased adrenal corticosterone (CORT) was observed. Several days following YOH or SAL administration, cFos, CORT and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and behavioral performance were measured. cFos was elevated post-YOH in the hippocampus; ventral tegmental area/zona inserta; and central and medial nuclei of the amygdala. This activation is consistent with a sustained effect of YOH to activate fear and anxiety circuitries in the CNS. CORT but not ACTH was elevated in the YOH-rats following startle testing. Self-administration and startle tests suggested an increase of non-specific activity in the post-YOH rats; there was no increase in sucrose self-administration or startle response per se. Our findings suggest that recurrent YOH administration may prove a useful and reliable model for simulating recurrent stress/anxiety, and that enhancements to the paradigm such as higher or more frequent dosing of YOH could yield stronger or more extensive behavioral effects.


PubMed | VA Puget Sound Health Care System 151
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Amyloid deposition and inflammation are characteristic of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether islet amyloid formation is required for the development of islet inflammation in vivo.Human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates (the latter incapable of forming islet amyloid) were fed a low-fat (10%) or high-fat (60%) diet for 12 months; high-fat feeding induces islet amyloid formation in transgenic mice. At the conclusion of the study, glycaemia, beta cell function, islet amyloid deposition, markers of islet inflammation and islet macrophage infiltration were measured.Fasting plasma glucose levels did not differ by diet or genotype. Insulin release in response to i.v. glucose was significantly greater in both high vs low fat groups, and significantly lower in both transgenic compared with non-transgenic groups. Only high-fat-fed transgenic mice developed islet amyloid and showed a trend towards reduced beta cell area. Compared with islets from low-fat-fed transgenic or high-fat-fed non-transgenic mice, islets of high-fat-fed transgenic mice displayed a significant increase in the expression of genes encoding chemokines (Ccl2, Cxcl1), macrophage/dendritic cell markers (Emr1, Itgax), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components (Nlrp3, Pycard, Casp1) and proinflammatory cytokines (Il1b, Tnf, Il6), as well as increased F4/80 staining, consistent with increased islet inflammation and macrophage infiltration.Our results indicate that islet amyloid formation is required for the induction of islet inflammation in this long-term high-fat-diet model, and thus could promote beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes via islet inflammation.

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