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Afari N.,University of California at San Diego | Ahumada S.M.,University of Minnesota | Wright L.J.,VA Northern California Health Care System | Golnari G.,University of California at San Diego | And 2 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: This meta-analysis systematically examined the association of reported psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with functional somatic syndromes including fibromyalgia, chronic widespread pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, and irritable bowel syndrome. Our goals were to determine the overall effect size of the association and to examine moderators of the relationship. Methods: Literature searches identified 71 studies with a control or comparison group and examined the association of the syndromes with traumatic events including abuse of a psychological, emotional, sexual, or physical nature sustained during childhood or adulthood, combat exposure, or PTSD. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Planned subgroup analyses and meta-regression examined potential moderators. Results: Individuals who reported exposure to trauma were 2.7 (95% confidence interval = 2.27-3.10) times more likely to have a functional somatic syndrome. This association was robust against both publication bias and the generally low quality of the literature. The magnitude of the association with PTSD was significantly larger than that with sexual or physical abuse. The association of reported trauma with chronic fatigue syndrome was larger than the association with either irritable bowel syndrome or fibromyalgia. Studies using nonvalidated questionnaires or self-report of trauma reported larger associations than did those using validated questionnaires. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that traumatic events are associated with an increased prevalence of functional somatic syndromes. The analyses also highlight limitations of the existing literature and emphasize the importance of prospective studies, examining the potential similarities and differences of these conditions, and pursuing hypothesis-driven studies of the mechanisms underlying the link between trauma, PTSD, and functional somatic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychosomatic Society.

Steinberg B.A.,Duke University | Zhao X.,Duke Clinical Research Institute | Heidenreich P.A.,VA Palo Alto Healthcare System | Peterson E.D.,Duke Clinical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background-Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EF) is a common syndrome, but trends in treatments and outcomes are lacking. Methods and Results-We analyzed data from 275 hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure from January 2005 to October 2010. Patients were stratified by EF as reduced EF (EF <40% [HF-reduced EF]), borderline EF (40%≤EF<50% [HF-borderline EF]), or preserved (EF ≥50% [HF-preserved EF]). Using multivariable models, we examined trends in therapies and outcomes. Among 110 621 patients, 50% (55 083) had HF-reduced EF, 14% (15 184) had HF-borderline EF, and 36% (40 354) had HF-preserved EF. From 2005 to 2010, the proportion of hospitalizations for HF-preserved EF increased from 33% to 39% (P=0.0001). In multivariable analyses, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers at discharge decreased in all EF groups, and β-blocker use increased. Patients with HF-preserved EF less frequently achieved blood pressure control (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44 versus HF-reduced EF; P=0.001) and were more likely discharged to skilled nursing (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 versus HF-reduced EF; P=0.001). In-hospital mortality for HF-preserved EF decreased from 3.32% in 2005 to 2.35% in 2010 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per year; P=0.01) but was stable for patients with HF-reduced EF (3.03%-2.83%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 per year; P=0.10). Conclusions-Hospitalization for HF-preserved EF is increasing relative to HF-reduced EF. Although in-hospital mortality for patients with HF-preserved EF declined over the study period, an important opportunity remains for identifying evidence-based therapies in patients with HF-preserved EF. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Arena R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Cahalin L.P.,University of Miami | Borghi-Silva A.,Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory | Myers J.,VA Palo Alto Healthcare System
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Given the unique and clinically ominous pathology associated with pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (PH) and its implications for the eventual deterioration of right ventricular function, exercise training (ET) was historically not recommended. More recently, a body of literature demonstrating the safety and efficacy of ET in PH has emerged. The primary focus of this review is to provide a synopsis of current evidence assessing the effects of ET on the PA system in patients with PH. The current body of evidence is relatively small and it is not clear if ET improves PA function or vessel characteristics. Nevertheless, studies have consistently found ET leads to numerous clinically relevant benefits including increased: 1) aerobic capacity, 2) muscle strength, 3) exercise tolerance, and 4) quality of life. Thus, ET, given its clinical benefits, is likely to enjoy increased utilization in patients with PH. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Giori N.J.,VA Palo Alto Healthcare System | Sidky A.O.,Stanford University
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2011

Diagnosis of a pelvic discontinuity before revision total hip arthroplasty is critical for adequate preoperative planning. The lateral view of the pelvis or high-angle oblique views can aid in visualizing the posterior column when hip hardware obscures the view on standard anteroposterior and Judet views of the pelvis. These views are easy to obtain and can provide valuable information when planning revision total hip arthroplasty. © 2011.

Though there are many reports of fractured femoral components after total hip arthroplasty; there are no reports of a fractured metal femoral head. This is a report of a fractured metal femoral head in a nonmodular total hip replacement discovered unexpectedly during revision total hip arthroplasty for acetabular failure. This surprise finding, which was not appreciated on preoperative x-rays, required unplanned extraction of a well-ingrown, fully porous coated cylindrical femoral stem. Though rare, fracture of the metal femoral head in a DePuy (Warsaw, Ind.) monoblock Anatomic Medullary Locking (AML) component is possible, and one cannot expect the fracture to be apparent on preoperative radiographs as the 2 pieces may not necessarily dissociate. As usual, the surgeon performing revision arthroplasty should be prepared to revise all components. © 2010.

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