Honolulu, HI, United States
Honolulu, HI, United States

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Berg D.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Marek K.,Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders | Ross G.W.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Ross G.W.,Kuakini Medical Center | Poewe W.,University of Innsbruck
Movement Disorders | Year: 2012

It is currently widely acknowledged that the natural history of PD includes a preclinical phase, and there are increasing efforts to identify markers that would allow the identification of individuals at risk for PD. Here, we discuss the issues related to defining at-risk populations for PD and review findings of current population-based cohorts that have reported potential biomarkers for PD, such as the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the PRIPS (Prospective Validation of Risk factors for the development of Parkinson Syndromes) study. We also discuss enriched risk cohorts designed to evaluate specificity and predictive value of markers exemplified by the PARS (Parkinson Associated Risk Study) and the TREND (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for the Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) study. Although there is still a long way to go, studies designed according to these concepts might eventually provide sufficient data to form the basis for future screening programs for PD risk to be applied at a population level. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

Gelber R.P.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Ross G.W.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Ross G.W.,Pacific Health Research and Education Institute | Petrovitch H.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | And 4 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the associations between classes of antihypertensive medication use and the risk of cognitive impairment among elderly hypertensive men. Methods: TheHonolulu-Asia Aging Study is a prospective, community-based cohort study of Japanese American men conducted in Honolulu, Hawaii. We examined 2,197 participants (mean age 77 years at cohort entry, 1991-1993, followed through September 2010) with hypertension andwithout dementia or cognitive impairment at baseline, who provided information on medication use. Cognitive function was assessed at 7 standardized examinations using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). Cognitive impairment was defined as a CASI score ,74. Results: A total of 854 men developed cognitive impairment (median follow-up, 5.8 years). b-Blocker use as the sole antihypertensive drug at baseline was consistently associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.94), as compared with men not taking any antihypertensive medications, adjusting for multiple potential confounders. The use of diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or vasodilators alone was not significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Results were similar excluding those with cardiovascular disease or ,1 year of follow-up, and additionally adjusting for pulse pressure, heart rate, baseline and midlife systolic blood pressure, and midlife antihypertensive treatment (IRR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45-0.94). The association between b-blocker use and cognitive impairment was stronger among men with diabetes, men aged .75 years, and those with pulse pressure $70 mm Hg. Conclusions: b-blocker use is associated with a lower risk of developing cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese American men. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

Gelber R.P.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Gelber R.P.,Pacific Health Research and Education Institute | Redline S.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Redline S.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine how sleep-disordered breathing, nocturnal hypoxia, and changes in sleep architecture in the elderly may be related to the development of the neuropathologic correlates of dementia. Methods: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study is a prospective cohort study of Japanese American men in Honolulu, HI. We examined brain lesions at autopsy (Braak stage, neurofibrillary tangle and neuritic plaque counts, microinfarcts, generalized brain atrophy, lacunar infarcts, Lewy bodies [LBs], neuronal loss and gliosis in the locus ceruleus) in 167 participants who underwent polysomnography in 1999-2000 (mean age, 84 years) and died through 2010 (mean 6.4 years to death). Polysomnography measures included the apnea-hypopnea index, duration of apnea or hypopnea, duration of hypoxemia, minimum oxygen saturation (SpO2), duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS, non-REM stage N3), and arousals. Results: Sleep duration with SpO2 ,95% was associated with higher levels of microinfarcts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.88,<95%confidence interval [CI] 1.10-13.76, comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of %sleep with SpO2 ,95%). Greater SWS duration was associated with less generalized atrophy (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.10-1.03, comparing highest to lowest quartiles of %sleep in SWS). LBs were less common with greater %sleep with SpO2 ,95%(adjusted OR 0.17,<95% CI 0.04-0.78, comparing highest to lowest quartiles). Higher minimum SpO2 during REM sleep was associated with less gliosis and neuronal loss in the locus ceruleus. Cognitive scores declined less among men with greater SWS duration. Conclusions: The findings support a role for lower nocturnal oxygenation and SWS in the development of microinfarcts and brain atrophy, but not Alzheimer lesions or LBs. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

Parashos S.A.,Struthers Parkinsons Center | Luo S.,University of Houston | Biglan K.M.,University of Rochester | Bodis-Wollner I.,New York University | And 4 more authors.
JAMA Neurology | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE Optimizing assessments of rate of progression in Parkinson disease (PD) is important in designing clinical trials, especially of potential disease-modifying agents. OBJECTIVE: To examine the value of measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life in assessing progression in early PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Inception cohort analysis of data from 413 patients with early, untreated PD who were enrolled in 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (67 received creatine, 66 received minocycline, 71 received coenzyme Q10, 71 received GPI-1485, and 138 received placebo).We assessed the association between the rates of change in measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life and time to initiation of symptomatic treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Time between baseline assessment and need for the initiation of symptomatic pharmaceutical treatment for PD was the primary indicator of disease progression. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline confounding variables with regard to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II score, the UPDRS Part III score, the modified Rankin Scale score, level of education, and treatment group, we assessed the rate of change for the following measurements: the UPDRS Part II score; the UPDRS Part III score; the Schwab and England Independence Scale score (which measures activities of daily living); the Total Functional Capacity scale; the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, summary index, and activities of daily living subscale; and version 2 of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Summary and Mental Summary. Variables reaching the statistical threshold in univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model using time to symptomatic treatment as the dependent variable. More rapid change (ie, worsening) in the UPDRS Part II score (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95%CI, 1.08-1.22] for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), the UPDRS Part III score (hazard ratio, 1.09 [95%CI, 1.06-1.13] for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), and the Schwab and England Independence Scale score (hazard ratio, 1.29 [95%CI, 1.12-1.48] for 5 percentage point change per 6 months) was associated with earlier need for symptomatic therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In early PD, the UPDRS Part II score and Part III score and the Schwab and England Independence Scale score can be used to measure disease progression, whereas the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire and summary index, Total Functional Capacity scale, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Summary and Mental Summary are not sensitive to change. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00063193 and NCT00076492. © 2014 American Medical Association.

Miyahira S.D.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Folen R.A.,U.S. Army | Stetz M.,U.S. Army | Rizzo A.,University of Southern California | Kawasaki M.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2010

Poorly managed anger responses can be detrimental to one's physical and psychosocial well-being. Cognitive behavior therapies (CBT) have been found to be effective in treating anger disorders. A key component of CBT treatment is exposure to the anger arousing stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) environments can elicit potent reactions and may facilitate the treatment of anger. An anger VR environment with six video vignettes was developed by this study to examine the anger arousal potential of VR. Outcome measures included assessment of emotional reactivity, state anger, and presence. The results showed that significant anger arousal occurred during exposure to the VR environment, and arousal was greater when viewed in an immersive HMD than a non-immersive flat screen. In addition, presence was found to moderate the effects of VR. Low presence resulted in low reactivity regardless of the display modality. © 2010 The Interactive Media Institute and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Roy S.S.,Ohio State University | Roy S.S.,University of Minnesota | Foraker R.E.,Ohio State University | Girton R.A.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Mansfield A.J.,National Center for PTSD
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We investigated the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and incident heart failure in a community-based sample of veterans. Methods. We examined Veterans Affairs Pacific Islands Health Care System outpatient medical records for 8248 veterans between 2005 and 2012. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the development of heart failure by PTSD status. Results. Over a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, veterans with PTSD were at increased risk for developing heart failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.92) compared with veterans without PTSD after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, body mass index, combat service, and military service period. Additional predictors for heart failure included age (HR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.07), diabetes (HR = 2.54; 95% CI = 2.02, 3.20), hypertension (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.42, 2.46), overweight (HR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.36), obesity (HR = 3.43; 95% CI = 2.50, 4.70), and combat service (HR = 4.99; 95% CI = 1.29, 19.38). Conclusions. Ours is the first large-scale longitudinal study to report an association between PTSD and incident heart failure in an outpatient sample of US veterans. Prevention and treatment efforts for heart failure and its associated risk factors should be expanded among US veterans with PTSD. © 2015, American Public Health Association Inc. All rights reserved.

Tsai J.,VA Connecticut Healthcare System | Tsai J.,Yale University | Whealin J.M.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Whealin J.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives. We (1) compared use of various health services nationally between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) veterans and veterans of other racial/ ethnic groups and (2) specifically compared perceived barriers and stigma related to mental health services. Methods. Using bivariate and multivariable statistics, we analyzed a population weighted sample of 8315 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans and a random sample of 567 recent veterans from Hawaii. Results. A total of 1.5% of veterans were AA/PI compared with 0.4% a decade ago. Compared with other veterans, AA/PI veterans reported higher socioeconomic status and better mental health, although these findings may be specific to AA veterans. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health differences, we found no differences in health service use or perceived barriers or stigma related to mental health services. Conclusions. AA/PIs are a small but fast-growing racial/ethnic group within the veteran population that deserves attention. Although veteran status may be protective against some barriers to mental health care found in the general AA/PI population, efforts to reduce barriers to health care among veterans should be continued.

Tsai J.,Education and Clinical Center | Tsai J.,Yale University | Whealin J.M.,VA Pacific Islands Health Care System | Scott J.C.,National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: This study examined demographic, military, and clinical characteristics associated with combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms; and how combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms and a novel 5-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are related to physical and mental health-related quality of life in veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Method: 233 veterans recruited from the Veterans Affairs Hawaii Program Registry who served in Iraq and Afghanistan completed a survey in 2010 that assessed combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms, PTSD (DSM-IV criteria), alcohol use problems, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. The primary measure was physical and mental health-related quality of life as assessed by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey, version 2. Results: Veterans who screened positive for combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms were more likely than those who did not to report direct combat exposure (χ2 = 15.46, P < .001), living in a rural area (χ2 = 6.86, P < .01), and screening positive for PTSD (χ2 = 37.67, P < .001) and alcohol use problems (χ2 = 11.62, P < .01); 57.3% of veterans who screened positive for combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms screened positive for PTSD. In bivariate analyses, combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms were associated with lower scores on measures of physical and mental health-related quality of life (r = -0.27 to -0.45, P < .001). In multivariate analyses, combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms were no longer related to these outcomes, with PTSD-related dysphoric arousal symptoms as the strongest predictor of physical health-related quality of life (β = -0.55, P < .001) and PTSD-related emotional numbing symptoms (β = -0.56, P < .001) as the strongest predictor of mental health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that a 5-factor model of PTSD symptoms may provide greater specificity in understanding the relation between combat-related concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and health-related physical and mental quality of life in Iraq/ Afghanistan veterans. Psychiatric clinicians should consider this heterogeneity of PTSD symptoms when assessing and treating symptomatic veterans. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

PubMed | University of Hawaii at Manoa, VA Pacific Islands Health Care System and Johns Hopkins Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorder continues to be highly prevalent worldwide. Meth users have higher impulsivity and brain abnormalities that may be different between current and past Meth users. The current study assessed impulsivity and depressive symptoms in 94 participants (27 current Meth users, 32 past Meth users and 35 non-drug user controls). Additionally, brain microstructure was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in the striatum, and FA, MD, radial and axial diffusivity were quantified in five white matter structures using DtiStudio.Across the three subject groups, current users had the highest self-reported impulsivity scores, while both Meth user groups had larger striatal structures than the controls. Past Meth users had the highest FA and lowest MD in the striatum, which is likely due to greater magnetic susceptibility from higher iron content and greater dendritic spine density. In white matter tracts, current Meth users had higher AD than past users, indicating greater water diffusion along the axons, and suggesting inflammation with axonal swelling. In contrast, past users had the lowest AD, indicating more restricted diffusion, which might have resulted from reactive gliosis. Although current Meth users had greater impulsivity than past users, the brain microstructural abnormalities showed differences that may reflect different stages of neuroinflammation or iron-induced neurodegeneration. Combining current and past Meth users may lead to greater variability in studies of Meth users. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between recency of Meth use and brain microstructure.

PubMed | MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative Care, VA Pacific Islands Health Care System, Consult Statistics Complete Statistical Services and Yeshiva University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pain and symptom management | Year: 2016

Evaluating religious/spiritual influences in the growing Chinese-American population may inform the development of culturally relevant palliative care interventions.We assessed the psychometric properties and acceptability of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale-Chinese (DSES-C) in Chinese Americans with cancer-related pain.The translated 16-item DSES-C was administered as part of a symptom intervention for Chinese-American cancer patients. Patients were recruited from four New York community oncology practices.Of 321 patients, 78.7% were born in Mainland China, 79.1% spoke Cantonese, and 70.2% endorsed a religious affiliation (Ancestor worship, 31.7%; Chinese God worship, 29.8%; Buddhism, 17.1%; Christianity, 14.0%). In total, 82.6% completed the DSES-C (mean age = 57.7 years; 60.8% women) and 17.4% declined (mean age = 59.3 years; 52.0% women). Reasons for declining included low religiosity or perceived relevance of the scale items and difficulties separating spirituality from religiosity terms. Individuals having a religious affiliation were more likely to complete the DSES-C, whereas those not engaging in individual spiritual/religious practices or frequent group spiritual/religious practices tended to decline (all P < 0.05). The DSES-C (mean total score = 43.6, SD = 19.3) demonstrated high reliability (alpha = 0.94). Exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution, with significant loadings (>0.40) across items except Item 14 (Accept others). Construct validity was suggested by a positive association between DSES-C scores and having a religious affiliation (P < 0.05).In Chinese Americans with cancer pain, the DSES-C demonstrated acceptable psychometrics. Some participants experienced linguistic or cultural barriers preventing completion. Future investigations should provide additional validation in different Asian subgroups and those with varied medical conditions.

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