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Wyatt T.A.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Wyatt T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Wells S.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Alsaidi Z.A.,Pulmonary | And 4 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

The airway epithelium is exposed to alcohol during drinking through direct exhalation of volatized ethanol from the bronchial circulation. Alcohol exposure leads to a rapid increase in the cilia beat frequency (CBF) of bronchial epithelial cells followed by a chronic desensitization of cilia stimulatory responses. This effect is governed in part by the nitric oxide regulation of cyclic guanosine and adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinases (PKG and PKA) and is not fully understood. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary disorders. We hypothesized that the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by ADMA blocks alcohol-stimulated increases in CBF. To test this hypothesis, ciliated primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells (BBEC) were preincubated with ADMA (100 μM) and stimulated with 100 mM ethanol. CBF was measured and PKA assayed. By 1 hr, ethanol activated PKA, resulting in elevated CBF. Both alcohol-induced PKA activation and CBF were inhibited in the presence of ADMA. ADMA alone had no effect on PKA activity or CBF. Using a mouse model overexpressing the ADMA-degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), we examined PKA and CBF in precision-cut mouse lung slices. Alcohol-stimulated increases in lung slice PKA and CBF were temporally enhanced in the DDAH mice versus control mice. © 2013 T. A. Wyatt et al.


McCaskill M.L.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Romberger D.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Romberger D.J.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | DeVasure J.,Pulmonary | And 6 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE) collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2-4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon)activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability of the lung to activate PKCε-dependent inflammatory pathways to environmental dust exposure. These data also define alcohol as an important co-exposure agent to consider in the study of inhalation injury responses. © 2012 by the authors.


Bailey K.L.,Pulmonary | LeVan T.D.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | LeVan T.D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Yanov D.A.,Pulmonary | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2012

Background: Haemophilus influenzae infection of the nasal epithelium has long been associated with observations of decreased nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and injury to the ciliated epithelium. Previously, we have reported that several agents that slow CBF also have the effect of activating protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε{lunate}) activity in bronchial epithelial cells. The subsequent auto-downregulation of PKCε{lunate} or the direct inhibition of PKCε{lunate} leads to the specific detachment of the ciliated cells. METHODS: Primary cultures of ciliated bovine bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to filtered conditioned media supernatants from non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) cultures. CBF and motile points were measured and PKCε{lunate} activity assayed.Results: NTHi supernatant exposure significantly and rapidly decreased CBF in a dose-dependent manner within 10 minutes of exposure. After 3 hours of exposure, the number of motile ciliated cells significantly decreased. Direct measurement of PKCε{lunate} activity revealed a dose-dependent activation of PKCε{lunate} in response to NTHi supernatant exposure. Both CBF and PKCε{lunate} activity changes were only observed in fresh NTHi culture supernatant and not observed in exposures to heat-inactivated or frozen supernatants.Conclusions: Our results suggest that CBF slowing observed in response to NTHi is consistent with the stimulated activation of PKCε{lunate}. Ciliated cell detachment is associated with PKCε{lunate} autodownregulation. © 2012 Bailey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gerald C.L.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Romberger D.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Romberger D.J.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Devasure J.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2016

Background: Farm workers in rural areas consume more alcohol than those who reside in urban areas. Occupational exposures such as agricultural work can pose hazards on the respiratory system. It is established that hog barn dust induces inflammation in the airway, including the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. We have shown that alcohol alters airway epithelial innate defense through changes in both nitric oxide (NO) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Simultaneous exposure to hog barn dust and alcohol decreases inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8, in mice. Previously, mice exposed to both alcohol and hog barn dust showed a depleted amount of lymphocytes compared to mice exposed only to hog barn dust. Weakening of the innate immune response could lead to enhanced susceptibility to disease. In addition, mice that were co-exposed to hog barn dust and alcohol also experienced increased mortality. Methods: Because we recently demonstrated that PKA activation inhibits the TNF-α sheddase, TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE), we hypothesized that an alcohol-mediated PKA pathway blocks TACE activity and prevents the normative inflammatory response to hog barn dust exposure. To delineate these effects, we used PKA pathway inhibitors (adenylyl cyclase [AC], cAMP, and PKA) to modulate the effects of alcohol on dust-stimulated TNF-α release in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Alcohol pretreatment blocked TACE activity and TNF-α release in hog barn dust-treated cells. Results: Alcohol continued to block hog barn dust-mediated TNF-α release in the presence of the particulate AC inhibitor, SQ22,536. The soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, KH7, however, significantly increased the inflammatory response to hog barn dust. phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors significantly elevated cAMP and enhanced alcohol-mediated inhibition of dust-stimulated TNF-α release. In addition, the NO synthase inhibitor, l-NMMA, also reversed the alcohol-blocking effect on dust-stimulated TNF-α. Conclusions: These data suggest that alcohol requires a soluble cyclase-generated cAMP-PKA pathway that is dependent upon the action of NO to inhibit TACE and TNF-α release. These findings support our observations that alcohol functions through a dual NO and PKA pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Research Society on Alcoholism.


Winters A.H.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Levan T.D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Levan T.D.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Vogel S.N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma spp. respiratory tract colonization is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, but differences in host susceptibility have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that variants in genes regulating the innate immune response are associated with altered risk for Ureaplasma spp. respiratory colonization and BPD in preterm infants. METHODS: Twenty-four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were assayed in 298 infants <33 weeks gestation who had serial respiratory cultures for Ureaplasma spp. and were evaluated for BPD. RESULTS: The majority of subjects (N = 205 [70%]) were African-American. One hundred ten (37%) were Ureaplasma positive. Four SNPs in TLR2 and TLR6 were significantly associated with Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization. Single SNPs in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were associated with BPD. TLR6 SNP rs5743827 was associated with both a decreased risk for Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and decreased risk for BPD (odds ratio: 0.54 [0.34-0.86] and odds ratio: 0.54 [0.31-0.95], respectively). There was a significant additive interaction between Ureaplasma colonization and genotype at TLR6 SNP rs5743827 (Padditive = 0.023), with an attributable proportion due to interaction of 0.542. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in host defense genes may alter susceptibility to Ureaplasma infection and severity of the inflammatory response contributing to BPD. These observations implicate host genetic susceptibility as a major factor in BPD pathogenesis in Ureaplasma-infected preterms. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Goldner W.S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Sandler D.P.,National Health Research Institute | Yu F.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Shostrom V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between thyroid disease and use of insecticides, herbicides, and fumigants/fungicides in male applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. METHODS: We examined the association between use of 50 specific pesticides and self-reported hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and "other" thyroid disease among 22,246 male pesticide applicators. RESULTS: There was increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever use of the herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-TP (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy-propionic acid), alachlor, dicamba, and petroleum oil. Hypothyroidism was also associated with ever use of eight insecticides: organochlorines chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene; organophosphates diazinon and malathion; and the carbamate carbofuran. Exposure-response analysis showed increasing odds with increasing level of exposure for the herbicides alachlor and 2,4-D and the insecticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, lindane, and parathion. CONCLUSION: There is an association between hypothyroidism and specific herbicides and insecticides in male applicators, similar to previous results for spouses. Copyright © 2013 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.


Wyatt T.A.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Wyatt T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Poole J.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Nordgren T.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2014

Lung injury caused by inhalation of dust from swine-concentrated animal-feeding operations (CAFO) involves the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8), which is mediated by protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in airway epithelial cells. Once activated by CAFO dust, PKC-ε is responsible for slowing cilia beating and reducing cell migration for wound repair. Conversely, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) stimulates contrasting effects, such as increased cilia beating and an acceleration of cell migration for wound repair. We hypothesized that a bidirectional mechanism involving PKA and PKC regulates epithelial airway inflammatory responses. To test this hypothesis, primary human bronchial epithelial cells and BEAS-2B cells were treated with hog dust extract (HDE) in the presence or absence of cAMP. PKC-ε activity was significantly reduced in cells that were pretreated for 1 h with 8-bromoadenosine 3=,5=-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) before exposure to HDE (P < 0.05). HDE-induced IL-6, and IL-8 release was significantly lower in cells that were pretreated with 8-Br-cAMP (P < 0.05). To exclude exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) involvement, cells were pretreated with either 8-Br-cAMP or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2’-O-methyladenosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-2Me-cAMP) (EPAC agonist). 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP did not activate PKA and did not reduce HDEstimulated IL-6 release. In contrast, 8-Br-cAMP decreased HDEstimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM-17) activity and subsequent TNF-α release (P < 0.001). 8-Br-cAMP also blocked HDE-stimulated IL-6 and keratinocytederived chemokine release in precision-cut mouse lung slices (P < 0.05). These data show bidirectional regulation of PKC-ε via a PKA-mediated inhibition of TACE activity resulting in reduced PKC- ε-mediated release of IL-6 and IL-8. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Zahid M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Beseler C.L.,Colorado State University | Hall J.B.,Levine Cancer Institute | LeVan T.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. © 2013 UICC.


Wyatt T.A.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Wyatt T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Sisson J.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Allen-Gipson D.S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Alcohol use disorders are associated with increased lung infections and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. Whereas the effects of cigarette smoke are well recognized, the interplay of smoke and alcohol in modulating lung diseases is not clear. Because innate lung defense is mechanically maintained by airway cilia action and protein kinase C (PKC)-activating agents slow ciliary beat frequency (CBF), we hypothesized that the combination of smoke and alcohol would decrease CBF in a PKC-dependent manner. Primary ciliated bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract plus100 mmol/L ethanol for up to 24 hours and assayed for CBF and PKCε. Smoke and alcohol co-exposure activated PKCε by 1 hour and decreased both CBF and total number of beating cilia by 6 hours. A specific activator of PKCε, DCP-LA, slowed CBF after maximal PKCε activation. Interestingly, activation of PKCε by smoke and alcohol was only observed in ciliated cells, not basal bronchial epithelium. In precision-cut mouse lung slices treated with smoke and alcohol, PKCε activation preceded CBF slowing. Correspondingly, increased PKCε activity and cilia slowing were only observed in mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol, regardless of the sequence of the combination exposure. No decreases in CBF were observed in PKCε knockout mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol. These data identify PKCε as a key regulator of cilia slowing in response to combined smoke and alcohol-induced lung injury. © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology.


PubMed | VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of pathology | Year: 2012

Alcohol use disorders are associated with increased lung infections and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. Whereas the effects of cigarette smoke are well recognized, the interplay of smoke and alcohol in modulating lung diseases is not clear. Because innate lung defense is mechanically maintained by airway cilia action and protein kinase C (PKC)-activating agents slow ciliary beat frequency (CBF), we hypothesized that the combination of smoke and alcohol would decrease CBF in a PKC-dependent manner. Primary ciliated bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract plus100 mmol/L ethanol for up to 24 hours and assayed for CBF and PKC. Smoke and alcohol co-exposure activated PKC by 1 hour and decreased both CBF and total number of beating cilia by 6 hours. A specific activator of PKC, DCP-LA, slowed CBF after maximal PKC activation. Interestingly, activation of PKC by smoke and alcohol was only observed in ciliated cells, not basal bronchial epithelium. In precision-cut mouse lung slices treated with smoke and alcohol, PKC activation preceded CBF slowing. Correspondingly, increased PKC activity and cilia slowing were only observed in mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol, regardless of the sequence of the combination exposure. No decreases in CBF were observed in PKC knockout mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol. These data identify PKC as a key regulator of cilia slowing in response to combined smoke and alcohol-induced lung injury.

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