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Warren K.J.,Iowa State University | Olson M.M.,Iowa State University | Thompson N.J.,Iowa State University | Cahill M.L.,Iowa State University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Obesity has been associated with greater severity of influenza virus infection and impaired host defense. Exercise may confer health benefits even when weight loss is not achieved, but it has not been determined if regular exercise improves immune defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in the obese condition. In this study, diet-induced obese mice and lean control mice exercised for eight weeks followed by influenza viral infection. Exercise reduced disease severity in both obese and non-obese mice, but the mechanisms differed. Exercise reversed the obesity-associated delay in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) cell infiltration, restored BAL cytokine and chemokine production, and increased ciliary beat frequency and IFNα-related gene expression. In non-obese mice, exercise treatment reduced lung viral load, increased Type-I-IFN-related gene expression early during infection, but reduced BAL inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In both obese and non-obese mice, exercise increased serum anti-influenza virus specific IgG2c antibody, increased CD8+ T cell percentage in BAL, and reduced TNFα by influenza viral NP-peptide-responding CD8+ T cells. Overall, the results suggest that exercise "restores" the immune response of obese mice to a phenotype similar to non-obese mice by improving the delay in immune activation. In contrast, in non-obese mice exercise treatment results in an early reduction in lung viral load and limited inflammatory response. © This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Source

Winters A.H.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Levan T.D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Levan T.D.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Vogel S.N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma spp. respiratory tract colonization is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, but differences in host susceptibility have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that variants in genes regulating the innate immune response are associated with altered risk for Ureaplasma spp. respiratory colonization and BPD in preterm infants. METHODS: Twenty-four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were assayed in 298 infants <33 weeks gestation who had serial respiratory cultures for Ureaplasma spp. and were evaluated for BPD. RESULTS: The majority of subjects (N = 205 [70%]) were African-American. One hundred ten (37%) were Ureaplasma positive. Four SNPs in TLR2 and TLR6 were significantly associated with Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization. Single SNPs in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were associated with BPD. TLR6 SNP rs5743827 was associated with both a decreased risk for Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and decreased risk for BPD (odds ratio: 0.54 [0.34-0.86] and odds ratio: 0.54 [0.31-0.95], respectively). There was a significant additive interaction between Ureaplasma colonization and genotype at TLR6 SNP rs5743827 (Padditive = 0.023), with an attributable proportion due to interaction of 0.542. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in host defense genes may alter susceptibility to Ureaplasma infection and severity of the inflammatory response contributing to BPD. These observations implicate host genetic susceptibility as a major factor in BPD pathogenesis in Ureaplasma-infected preterms. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Wyatt T.A.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Wyatt T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Sisson J.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Allen-Gipson D.S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Alcohol use disorders are associated with increased lung infections and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. Whereas the effects of cigarette smoke are well recognized, the interplay of smoke and alcohol in modulating lung diseases is not clear. Because innate lung defense is mechanically maintained by airway cilia action and protein kinase C (PKC)-activating agents slow ciliary beat frequency (CBF), we hypothesized that the combination of smoke and alcohol would decrease CBF in a PKC-dependent manner. Primary ciliated bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract plus100 mmol/L ethanol for up to 24 hours and assayed for CBF and PKCε. Smoke and alcohol co-exposure activated PKCε by 1 hour and decreased both CBF and total number of beating cilia by 6 hours. A specific activator of PKCε, DCP-LA, slowed CBF after maximal PKCε activation. Interestingly, activation of PKCε by smoke and alcohol was only observed in ciliated cells, not basal bronchial epithelium. In precision-cut mouse lung slices treated with smoke and alcohol, PKCε activation preceded CBF slowing. Correspondingly, increased PKCε activity and cilia slowing were only observed in mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol, regardless of the sequence of the combination exposure. No decreases in CBF were observed in PKCε knockout mice co-exposed to smoke and alcohol. These data identify PKCε as a key regulator of cilia slowing in response to combined smoke and alcohol-induced lung injury. © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Source

Zahid M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Beseler C.L.,Colorado State University | Hall J.B.,Levine Cancer Institute | LeVan T.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. © 2013 UICC. Source

Wyatt T.A.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System Research Service | Wyatt T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Wells S.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Alsaidi Z.A.,Pulmonary | And 4 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

The airway epithelium is exposed to alcohol during drinking through direct exhalation of volatized ethanol from the bronchial circulation. Alcohol exposure leads to a rapid increase in the cilia beat frequency (CBF) of bronchial epithelial cells followed by a chronic desensitization of cilia stimulatory responses. This effect is governed in part by the nitric oxide regulation of cyclic guanosine and adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinases (PKG and PKA) and is not fully understood. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary disorders. We hypothesized that the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by ADMA blocks alcohol-stimulated increases in CBF. To test this hypothesis, ciliated primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells (BBEC) were preincubated with ADMA (100 μM) and stimulated with 100 mM ethanol. CBF was measured and PKA assayed. By 1 hr, ethanol activated PKA, resulting in elevated CBF. Both alcohol-induced PKA activation and CBF were inhibited in the presence of ADMA. ADMA alone had no effect on PKA activity or CBF. Using a mouse model overexpressing the ADMA-degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), we examined PKA and CBF in precision-cut mouse lung slices. Alcohol-stimulated increases in lung slice PKA and CBF were temporally enhanced in the DDAH mice versus control mice. © 2013 T. A. Wyatt et al. Source

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