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Nallapaneni N.N.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Mourya R.,Creighton University | Bhatt V.R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Malhotra S.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | And 2 more authors.
JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Year: 2014

Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, leading to enhanced T-cell activation and proliferation, is associated with improved overall survival in melanoma. Its use can result in immune-related adverse events, the most common of which are skin rash, diarrhea, and colitis. Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis is uncommon, mostly involves anterior pituitary, and is associated with abnormalities in pituitary MRI, whereas uveitis has been rarely reported. These immune- related adverse events occur during therapy. This report describes a patient who developed uveitis and hypophysitis involving both anterior and posterior pituitary, without MRI findings more than 3 weeks after the fourth dose of ipilimumab. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of and diagnostic challenges associated with ipilimumab-induced immune-related adverse events.


Islam K.M.M.,984395 Nebraska Medical Center | Jiang X.,984395 Nebraska Medical Center | Anggondowati T.,984395 Nebraska Medical Center | Lin G.,University of Nevada, Reno | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: As the population of the United States ages, there will be increasing numbers of lung cancer patients with comorbidities at diagnosis. Comorbid conditions are important factors in both the choice of the lung cancer treatment and outcomes. However, the impact of individual comorbid conditions on patient survival remains unclear. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 5,683 first-time diagnosed lung cancer patients was captured using the Nebraska Cancer Registry (NCR) linked with the Nebraska Hospital Discharge Data (NHDD) between 2005 and 2009. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on the overall survival of patients stratified by stage and adjusting for age, race, sex, and histologic type. Results: Of these patients, 36.8% of them survived their first year after lung cancer diagnosis, with a median survival of 9.3 months for all stages combined. In this cohort, 26.7% of the patients did not have any comorbidity at diagnosis. The most common comorbid conditions were chronic pulmonary disease (52.5%), diabetes (15.7%), and congestive heart failure (12.9%). The adjusted overall survival of lung cancer patients was negatively associated with the existence of different comorbid conditions such as congestive heart failure, diabetes with complications, moderate or severe liver disease, dementia, renal disease, and cerebrovascular disease, depending on the stage. Conclusions: The presence of comorbid conditions was associated with worse survival. Different comorbid conditions were associated with worse outcomes at different stages. Impact: Future models for predicting lung cancer survival should take individual comorbid conditions into consideration. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Williams C.D.,Durham Medical Center | Williams C.D.,Duke University | Gajra A.,SUNY Upstate Medical University | Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND Despite clinical trials demonstrating improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is unclear whether this survival benefit extends to broader populations. The current study evaluated patterns of AC use and examined the impact of AC on survival. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients in the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry diagnosed with stages IB to IIIA NSCLC between 2001 and 2008. Descriptive statistics were used to examine patterns of AC use over an 8-year time period. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to compare mortality risk among patients treated with and without AC. RESULTS Among 14,306 patients with stages IB to IIIA NSCLC, 4929 underwent surgery and 22% of these received AC. The percentages of patients diagnosed in 2001 through 2003, 2004 through 2005, and 2006 through 2008 receiving AC were 7.0%, 29.8%, and 29.5%, respectively. There was no survival benefit with AC noted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, but AC was associated with improved survival for the period between 2004 and 2005 (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91) and 2006 through 2008 (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91). Of those patients receiving AC, 89% received platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Carboplatin remained the most common agent, although cisplatin use reached 43% in the period between 2006 and 2008. The HR for cisplatin relative to carboplatin was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.80-1.15). CONCLUSIONS There was a significant increase in the use of AC between 2001 and 2008 and AC was associated with an improvement in overall survival. Cancer 2014;120:1939-1947. © 2014 American Cancer Society.


Seshacharyulu P.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ponnusamy M.P.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Haridas D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Jain M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2012

Introduction: Cancer is a devastating disease; however, several therapeutic advances have recently been made, wherein EGFR and its family members have emerged as useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets. EGFR, a transmembrane glycoprotein is a member of the ERBB receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily. EGFR binds to its cognate ligand EGF, which further induces tyrosine phosphorylation and receptor dimerization with other family members leading to enhanced uncontrolled proliferation. Several anti-EGFR therapies such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed, which has enabled clinicians to identify and treat specific patient cohorts. Areas covered: This review covers the basic mechanism of EGFR activation and the role of EGFR signaling in cancer progression. Furthermore, current developments made toward targeting the EGFR signaling pathway for the treatment of epithelial cancers and a summary of the various anti-EGFR therapeutic agents that are currently in use are also presented in this review. Expert opinion: EGFR signaling is a part of a complex network that has been the target of effective cancer therapies. However, a further understanding of the system is required to develop an effective anticancer regimen. A combination therapy that comprises an anti-EGFR and a chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agent will exhibit a multi-pronged approach that can be developed into a highly attractive and specific molecular oriented remedy. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) | Year: 2011

The introduction of newer therapies and approaches for management has led to a renewed excitement in the field of lung cancer. This trend has continued in 2010 with the adoption of the new staging system recommended by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Novel targets, such as EML4-ALK, have been identified and agents targeting these abnormalities have shown promise in uncontrolled clinical trials, while other strategies, including combining targeted agents with cytotoxic chemotherapy in unselected patients, have not proven to be successful. This review summarizes important recent clinical advances that could have a significant impact on the future care of patients with lung cancer.


Shivaswamy V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Shivaswamy V.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | Boerner B.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Larsen J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Endocrine Reviews | Year: 2016

Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM. © 2016 by the Endocrine Society.


Barber N.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System
Targeted Oncology | Year: 2011

Pulmonary toxicity is rarely seen with most commonly used targeted therapies. The endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD). BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib can cause pleural effusions. Infusion-related bronchospasm is common with the monoclonal antibodies to EGFR cetuximab and panitumumab, and case reports of bronchiolitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been described. Up to one-sixth of patients taking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors get a reversible interstitial pneumonitis. Bevacizumab, the monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been associated with hemoptysis and pulmonary embolism particularly in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Infusion-related bronchospasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and interstitial pneumonitis can be seen with the anti-lymphocyte monoclonal antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab, and alemtuzumab. While most pulmonary toxicities from these therapies are mild and resolve promptly with dose reduction or discontinuation, it is important for the clinician to recognize these potential toxicities when faced with treatment-related complications. Discerning these pulmonary adverse effects may help in making decisions on diagnostic testing and therapy, particularly for those with pulmonary and cardiovascular co-morbidities. © Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2011.


Momi N.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kaur S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Rachagani S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that are differentially expressed in several pathophysiological conditions including cancer. They impact the disease course by modulating an array of putative target gene(s). Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between the various miRNAs target(s) and the smoking-regulated genes in cancer. This review article provides an insight into the current status of smoking-induced miRNAs and their genetic/epigenetic regulation in smoking-associated cancers, with a major focus on lung cancer (LC). Furthermore, it discusses the role of miRNAs in smoking-mediated oncogenic events in cancer and explores the diagnostic/prognostic potential of miRNA-based biomarkers and their efficacy as therapeutic targets. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Panwar A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Batra R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Lydiatt W.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | Ganti A.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2014

The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing despite a decrease in tobacco use. Almost 20-30% of patients with OPSCC do not have the traditional risk factors of smoking and alcohol use and in a vast majority of these patients, the human papilloma virus (HPV) appears to drive the malignant transformation. HPV induced malignant transformation is attributed to two viral oncogenes and their non-structural protein products (E6 and E7). These two proteins appear to affect carcinogenesis by their inhibitory effects on p53 and retinoblastoma proteins (Rb). Patients with HPV mediated OPSCC seem to have a better prognosis compared to their non-HPV counterparts. However, in the absence of strong evidence, standard of care at this time for OPSCC does not differ based on HPV status. Current research is focused on the role of de-escalation of treatment and elucidation of prognostic markers in this unique population. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of HPV mediated OPSCC and details the current evidence in the management of these patients. © 2013.


Macha M.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Batra S.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ganti A.K.,VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | Ganti A.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2013

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy. Recent advances in our understanding of the critical biologic pathways implicated in the development and progression of BCC have led to the development of the first molecular targeted therapy for this disease. The hedgehog pathway is mutated in virtually all patients with BCC and recent trials with vismodegib, an inhibitor of this pathway, have shown significant responses. This review will discuss the importance of the hedgehog pathway in the pathogenesis of BCC and describe in detail the pharmacology of vismodegib in relation to its activity in advanced BCC. © 2013 Macha et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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