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Hauser M.A.,Duke University | Hauser M.A.,Duke Molecular Physiology Institute | Garrett M.E.,Duke University | Garrett M.E.,Duke Center for Human Disease Modeling | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2017

The aim of the present study was to attempt to replicate the recently reported finding associating rs2400707 of the Adrenoceptor Beta 2, Surface (ADRB2) gene and childhood trauma on PTSD symptoms. Participants included a predominantly veteran cohort of non-Hispanic blacks (NHB; n = 949) and a pre-dominantly veteran cohort of non-Hispanic whites (NHW; n = 759). No main effects were observed for rs2400707 on PTSD diagnosis. Among the NHB participants, we observed an interaction between rs2400707 and history of childhood trauma, whereby with each additional A allele, the odds of having PTSD increased by 1.31, but only among those who had experienced childhood trauma (p = 0.038). The interaction with rs2400707 and childhood trauma was not observed among the NHW study participants (p = 0.892). Taken together, the findings from the present research provide further evidence that the adrenergic system may be an important modulator of PTSD risk; however, additional work is still needed to clarify the exact nature of the relationship between PTSD and rs2400707 of the ADRB2 gene. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Grosso J.A.,Baylor University | Kimbrel N.A.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Kimbrel N.A.,The VA Mid Atlantic Mental Illness Research | Dolan S.,Baylor University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2014

Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD). We hypothesized that avoidant and action-oriented coping styles would moderate the association between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol outcomes among U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans, such that PTSD symptoms would be most strongly and positively associated with negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking quantity when action-oriented coping was low and avoidant coping was high. The sample (N = 128; 85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment for PTSD and AUD and self-report surveys measuring coping styles, drinking quantity, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a 3-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction (d = 0.47-0.55). Post hoc descriptive analyses indicated that veterans with a current diagnosis of PTSD, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with veterans with fewer risk factors. Findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. © 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Kimbrel N.A.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Kimbrel N.A.,The VA Mid Atlantic Mental Illness Research | Kimbrel N.A.,Texas A&M University | Morissette S.B.,Texas A&M University | And 6 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2014

Background: Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method: Participants (N= 99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-h nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Results: Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. Conclusions: These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. © 2013 .


Hiraoka R.,Central Texas Veterans Health care System | Meyer E.C.,Central Texas Veterans Health care System | Meyer E.C.,Texas A&M University | Kimbrel N.A.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2015

U.S. combat veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population. Self-compassion, characterized by self-kindness, a sense of common humanity when faced with suffering, and mindful awareness of suffering, is a potentially modifiable factor implicated in the development and maintenance of PTSD. We examined the concurrent and prospective relationship between self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity after accounting for level of combat exposure and baseline PTSD severity in 115 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans exposed to 1 or more traumatic events during deployment. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS-IV) at baseline and 12 months (n =101). Self-compassion and combat exposure were assessed at baseline via self-report. Self-compassion was associated with baseline PTSD symptoms after accounting for combat exposure (β = -.59; p < .001; ΔR2 = .34; f2 = .67; large effect) and predicted 12-month PTSD symptom severity after accounting for combat exposure and baseline PTSD severity (β = -.24; p = .008; ΔR2 = .03; f2 = .08; small effect). Findings suggest that interventions that increase self-compassion may be beneficial for treating chronic PTSD symptoms among some Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.


Gentes E.L.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Gentes E.L.,The VA Mid Atlantic Mental Illness Research | Dennis P.A.,Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Dennis P.A.,Duke University | And 31 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2014

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant problem among Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. To date, however, there has been only limited research on how the recent changes in DSM-5 influence the prevalence and factor structure of PTSD. To address this key issue, the present research used a modified version of a gold-standard clinical interview to assess PTSD among a large sample of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans (N=414). Thirty-seven percent of the sample met DSM-5 criteria for PTSD compared to a rate of 38% when DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used. Differences in rates of diagnosis between DSM-IV and DSM-5 were primarily attributable to changes to Criterion A and the separation of the "avoidance" and "numbing" symptoms into separate clusters. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5, a 4-factor "dysphoria" model, and a 5-factor model. CFA demonstrated that the 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best overall fit to the data, although substantial support was also found for the 4-factor DSM-5 model. Low factor loadings were noted for two of the symptoms in the DSM-5 model (psychogenic amnesia and reckless/self-destructive behavior), raising questions regarding the adequacy of fit between these symptoms and the other core features of PTSD. Overall, findings suggest the DSM-5 model of PTSD is an improvement over the previous DSM-IV model of PTSD, but still may not represent the true underlying factor structure of PTSD. © 2014.


PubMed | Duke University, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and The VA Mid Atlantic Mental Illness Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychopathology review | Year: 2015

The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on

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