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Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Greco J.A.,University of Michigan | Liberzon I.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System | Liberzon I.,University of Michigan
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. © 2016 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved. Source

Henry S.G.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System
Annals of family medicine | Year: 2012

We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. Source

Kulkarni M.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System | Porter K.E.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System | Rauch S.A.M.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System | Rauch S.A.M.,University of Michigan
Journal of Anxiety Disorders | Year: 2012

Prior research suggests that dissociation and anger are risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research found that trauma survivors with higher levels of anger also report more severe PTSD overall. Studies also support a relationship between PTSD severity and dissociation. Only one prior study of sexual assault survivors by Feeny, Zoellner, and Foa (2000) examined the relationships among dissociation, anger, and PTSD. While Veterans have been found to report high levels of anger and dissociation, the relationship between these factors and PTSD has not been examined among Veterans. This paper examines the relationship among anger, dissociation, and PTSD in treatment-seeking Veterans who presented for evaluation at the PTSD Clinic in the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System during a four year period. Anger and dissociation predicted PTSD, hyperarousal, and avoidance/numbing severity while dissociation predicted intrusive severity. The implications of these results for clinical practice are discussed. © 2011. Source

Potkay J.A.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System | Potkay J.A.,University of Michigan | Potkay J.A.,Case Western Reserve University
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

Microfluidic or microchannel artificial lungs promise to enable a new class of truly portable, therapeutic artificial lungs through feature sizes and blood channel designs that closely mimic those found in their natural counterpart. These new artificial lungs could potentially: 1) have surface areas and priming volumes that are a fraction of current technologies thereby decreasing device size and reducing the foreign body response; 2) contain blood flow networks in which cells and platelets experience pressures, shear stresses, and branching angles that copy those in the human lung thereby improving biocompatibility; 3) operate efficiently with room air, eliminating the need for gas cylinders and complications associated with hyperoxemia; 4) exhibit biomimetic hydraulic resistances, enabling operation with natural pressures and eliminating the need for blood pumps; and, 5) provide increased gas exchange capacity enabling respiratory support for active patients. This manuscript reviews recent research efforts in microfluidic artificial lungs targeted at achieving the advantages above, investigates the ultimate performance and scaling limits of these devices using a proven mathematical model, and discusses the future challenges that must be overcome in order for microfluidic artificial lungs to be applied in the clinic. If all of these promising advantages are realized and the remaining challenges are met, microfluidic artificial lungs could revolutionize the field of pulmonary rehabilitation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Oscherwitz J.,University of Michigan | Yu F.,University of Michigan | Jacobs J.L.,University of Michigan | Ceasea K.B.,VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

We previously showed that a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccine displaying amino acids (aa) 304 to 319 from the 2β2-2β3 loop of protective antigen was capable of protecting rabbits from an aerosolized spore challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. Antibodies to this sequence, referred to as the loop-neutralizing determinant (LND), are highly potent at neutralizing lethal toxin yet are virtually absent in rabbit and human protective antigen (PA) antiserum. While the MAP vaccine was protective against anthrax, it contains a single heterologous helper T cell epitope which may be suboptimal for stimulating an outbred human population. We therefore engineered a recombinant vaccine (Rec-LND) containing two tandemly repeated copies of the LND fused to maltose binding protein, with enhanced immunogenicity resulting from the p38/P4 helper T cell epitope from Schistosoma mansoni. Rec-LND was found to be highly immunogenic in four major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-diverse strains of mice. All (7/7) rabbits immunized with Rec-LND developed high-titer antibody, 6 out of 7 developed neutralizing antibody, and all rabbits were protected from an aerosolized spore challenge of 193 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the B. anthracis Ames strain. Survivor serum from Rec-LND-immunized rabbits revealed significantly increased neutralization titers and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels yet lacked PA or lethal factor (LF) antigenemia. Control rabbits immunized with PA, which were also completely protected, appeared sterilely immune, exhibiting significant declines in neutralization titer and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels. We conclude that Rec-LND may represent a prototype anthrax vaccine for use alone or potentially combined with PA-containing vaccines. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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