Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System

Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System

Ann Arbor, MI, United States
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Mullins P.G.,Bangor University | McGonigle D.J.,University of Cardiff | O'Gorman R.L.,University of Zürich | Puts N.A.J.,Johns Hopkins University | And 15 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

There is increasing interest in the use of edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the detection of GABA in the human brain. At a recent meeting held at Cardiff University, a number of spectroscopy groups met to discuss the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of GABA-edited MR spectra. This paper aims to set out the issues discussed at this meeting, reporting areas of consensus around parameters and procedures in the field and highlighting those areas where differences remain. It is hoped that this paper can fulfill two needs, providing a summary of the current 'state-of-the-art' in the field of GABA-edited MRS at 3. T using MEGA-PRESS and a basic guide to help researchers new to the field to avoid some of the pitfalls inherent in the acquisition and processing of edited MRS for GABA. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Vederman A.C.,University of Michigan | Weisenbach S.L.,University of Michigan | Weisenbach S.L.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Rapport L.J.,Wayne State University | And 9 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2012

Objectives: Affect identification accuracy paradigms have increasingly been utilized to understand psychiatric illness including Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This investigation focused on perceptual accuracy in affect identification in both visual and auditory domains among patients with BD, relative to Healthy Controls (HC) and patients with MDD. Demographic and clinical variables, in addition to medications were also investigated. Method: The visual Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) and auditory Emotional Perception Test (EPT) were administered to adults with BD (n= 119) and MDD (n= 78) as well as HC (n= 66). Results: Performance on the FEPT was significantly stronger than on the EPT irrespective of group. Performance on the EPT did not significantly differentiate the groups. On the FEPT, BD samples had the greatest difficulty relative to HC in identification of sad and fearful faces. BD participants also had greater difficulty identifying sad faces relative to MDD participants though not after controlling for severity of illness factors. For the BD (but not MDD) sample several clinical variables were also correlated with FEPT performance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that disruptions in identification of negative emotions such as sadness and fear may be a characteristic trait of BD. However, this effect may be moderated by greater illness severity found in our BD sample. © 2011 Elsevier Srl.

Piette J.D.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Piette J.D.,University of Michigan | Richardson C.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Richardson C.,University of Michigan | And 8 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2011

Background: Patients with diabetes and depression often have self-management needs that require between-visit support. This study evaluated the impact of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting patients' management of depressive symptoms, physical activity levels, and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods: Two hundred ninety-one patients with type 2 diabetes and significant depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory scores ≥14) were recruited from a community-based, university-based, and Veterans Affairs health care systems. A manualized telephone CBT program was delivered weekly by nurses for 12 weeks, followed by 9 monthly booster sessions. Sessions initially focused exclusively on patients' depression management and then added a pedometer-based walking program. The primary outcome was hemoglobin A1c levels measured at 12 months. Blood pressure was a secondary outcome; levels of physical activity were determined by pedometer readings; depression, coping, and health-related quality of life were measured using standardized scales. Results: Baseline A1c levels were relatively good and there was no difference in A1c at follow-up. Intervention patients experienced a 4.26 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure relative to controls (P=0.05). Intervention patients had significantly greater increases in step counts (mean difference, 1131 steps/d; P=0.0002) and greater reductions in depressive symptoms (58% remitted at 12 mo vs. 39%; P=0.002). Intervention patients also experienced relative improvements in coping and health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This program of telephone-delivered CBT combined with a pedometer-based walking program did not improve A1c values, but significantly decreased patients' blood pressure, increased physical activity, and decreased depressive symptoms. The intervention also improved patients' functioning and quality of life. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Foerster B.R.,University of Michigan | Foerster B.R.,Johns Hopkins University | Foerster B.R.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Callaghan B.C.,University of Michigan | And 6 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To determine if there are in vivo differences in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the motor cortex and subcortical white matter of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 patients with ALS and 9 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent 3T edited 1H-MRS to quantify GABA centered on the motor cortex and the subcortical white matter. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with ALS had significantly lower levels of GABA in the left motor cortex (1.42 ± 0.27 arbitrary institutional units vs 1.70 ± 0.24 arbitrary institutional units, p = 0.038). There was no significant difference in GABA levels between groups in the subcortical white matter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Decreased levels of GABA are present in the motor cortex of patients with ALS compared to HCs. Findings are consistent with prior reports of alterations in GABA receptors in the motor cortex as well as increased cortical excitability in the context of ALS. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings and to further our understanding of the role of GABA in the pathogenesis of ALS. Copyright © 2012 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Foerster B.R.,Johns Hopkins University | Foerster B.R.,University of Michigan | Foerster B.R.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Dwamena B.A.,University of Michigan | And 6 more authors.
Academic Radiology | Year: 2012

Rationale and Objectives: A number of studies have reported decreases in fractional anistropy (FA) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis in order to estimate the diagnostic test accuracy measures of DTI for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE (1966-April 2011), EMBASE (1999-April 2011), CINAHL (1999-April 2011), and Cochrane (2005-April 2011) databases to identify studies that measured FA in ALS subjects. Human, single-center studies using a DTI region of interest (ROI) or tractography techniques were used to compare FA values along the brain corticospinal tracts between ALS subjects and healthy controls. There were no language restrictions. Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields including study quality indicators. We identified 30 case-control studies that used region of interest or tractography DTI techniques. We applied binormal receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assign specificity and sensitivity for each study. We applied the bivariate mixed-effects regression model using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation to calculate summary estimates for the sensitivity and specificity. We used the metan module in Stata, version 11.0, to calculate the area under the ROC curve, diagnostic odds ratio and the test effectiveness summary estimates. Results: The pooled sensitivity was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69); the pooled specificity, 0.67 (95% CI 0.63-0.72); the pooled diagnostic odds ratio, 1.88 (95% CI 1.46-2.30); the pooled test effectiveness, 1.04 (95% CI 0.81-1.27); and the pooled area under the ROC curve, 0.76 (95% CI 0.71-0.81). Subanalyses comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength (1.5T vs. 3.0T) and brain location (corticospinal tract average vs. internal capsule) revealed no significant differences in the test accuracy measures. Reference standard used for the diagnosis of ALS was the El Escorial criteria. There was at least moderate heterogeneity between the studies. True study quality is uncertain. Conclusion: The discriminatory capability of DTI to make a diagnosis of ALS is only modest. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic test accuracy summary estimates with respect to MRI field strength or brain location. © 2012 AUR.

Verstraete E.,University Utrecht | Foerster B.R.,University of Michigan | Foerster B.R.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Foerster B.R.,Johns Hopkins University
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2015

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, with variable involvement of extramotor brain regions. Currently, there are no established objective markers of upper motor neuron and extramotor involvement in ALS. Here, we review the potential diagnostic value of advanced neuroimaging techniques that are increasingly being used to study the brain in ALS. First, we discuss the role of different imaging modalities in our increasing understanding of ALS pathogenesis, and their potential to contribute to objective upper motor neuron biomarkers for the disease. Second, we discuss the challenges to be overcome and the required phases of diagnostic test development to translate imaging technology to clinical care. We also present examples of multidimensional imaging approaches to achieve high levels of diagnostic accuracy. Last, we address the role of neuroimaging in clinical therapeutic trials. Advanced neuroimaging techniques will continue to develop and offer significant opportunities to facilitate the development of new effective treatments for ALS. © 2015, The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Zarina Kraal A.,University of Michigan | Waldron-Perrine B.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Pangilinan P.H.,University of Michigan | Pangilinan P.H.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | And 2 more authors.
Rehabilitation Psychology | Year: 2015

Although the relationship between negative affect and psychiatric symptoms has been well-demonstrated in research, less is known about positive affect relative to negative affect, and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms, especially among veterans. This study examined how levels of positive and negative affect are associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were collected in a veteran polytrauma clinic; analyses were conducted using data from 94 veterans (87 males) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis. Results demonstrate that positive and negative affect were separate dimensions and that both were independently related to each symptom measure. After removing the contribution of negative affect from symptom reports, strong relationships remained between positive affect and psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, the magnitude of the associations for positive affect and for negative affect with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were not impacted by a mTBI diagnosis. Altogether, findings suggest that both positive and negative affect should be uniquely considered when conceptualizing, assessing, and treating returning service members; in addition, positive affect may be an appropriate target of assessment and interventions of persons who have experienced polytrauma.

Piette J.D.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Rosland A.M.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Silveira M.J.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | Hayward R.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System | McHorney C.A.,Merck And Co.
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2011

A national internet survey was conducted between March and April 2009 among 27,302 US participants in the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. Respondents reported behaviors related to cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) and the impacts of medication costs on other aspects of their daily lives. Among respondents aged 40-64 and looking for work, 66% reported CRN in 2008, and 41% did not fill a prescription due to cost pressures. More than half of respondents aged 40-64 and nearly two-thirds of those in this group who were looking for work or disabled reported other impacts of medication costs, such as cutting back on basic needs or increasing credit card debt. More than one-third of respondents aged 65+ who were working or looking for work reported CRN. Regardless of age or employment status, roughly half of respondents reporting medication cost hardship said that these problems had become more frequent in 2008 than before the economic recession. These data show that many chronically ill patients, particularly those looking for work or disabled, reported greater medication cost problems since the economic crisis began. Given links between CRN and worse health, the financial downturn may have had significant health consequences for adults with chronic illness. © 2011 Piette et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Piette J.D.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2010

patients in underdeveloped countries may be left behind by advances in telehealthcare. We surveyed chronically ill patients with low incomes in Honduras to measure their use of mobile technologies and willingness to participate in mobile disease management support. 624 chronically ill primary care patients in Honduras were surveyed. We examined variation in telephone access across groups defined by patients' sociodemographic characteristics, diagnoses, and access to care. Logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates of patients' interest in automated telephonic support for disease management. participants had limited education (mean 4.8 years), and 65% were unemployed. Eighty-four percent had telephone access, and 78% had cell phones. Most respondents had voicemail (61%) and text messaging (58%). Mobile technologies were particularly common among patients who had to forego clinic visits and medications due to cost concerns (each p < 0.05). Most patients (>80%) reported that they would be willing to receive automated calls focused on appointment reminders, medication adherence, health status monitoring, and self-care education. Patients were more likely to be willing to participate in automated telemedicine services if they had to cancel a clinic appointment due to transportation problems or forego medication due to cost pressures. even in this poor region of Honduras, most chronically ill patients have access to mobile technology, and most are willing to participate in automated telephone disease management support. Given barriers to in-person care, new models of mobile healthcare should be developed for chronically ill patients in developing countries.

Piette J.D.,Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2012

Hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases represent a growing threat to low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Mobile health technologies may improve noncommunicable disease outcomes, but LMICs lack resources to provide these services. We evaluated the efficacy of a cloud computing model using automated self-management calls plus home blood pressure (BP) monitoring as a strategy for improving systolic BPs (SBPs) and other outcomes of hypertensive patients in two LMICs. This was a randomized trial with a 6-week follow-up. Participants with high SBPs (≥140 mm Hg if nondiabetic and ≥130 mm Hg if diabetic) were enrolled from clinics in Honduras and Mexico. Intervention patients received weekly automated monitoring and behavior change telephone calls sent from a server in the United States, plus a home BP monitor. At baseline, control patients received BP results, hypertension information, and usual healthcare. The primary outcome, SBP, was examined for all patients in addition to a preplanned subgroup with low literacy or high hypertension information needs. Secondary outcomes included perceived health status and medication-related problems. Of the 200 patients recruited, 181 (90%) completed follow-up, and 117 of 181 had low literacy or high hypertension information needs. The median annual income was $2,900 USD, and average educational attainment was 6.5 years. At follow-up intervention patients' SBPs decreased 4.2 mm Hg relative to controls (95% confidence interval -9.1, 0.7; p=0.09). In the subgroup with high information needs, intervention patients' average SBPs decreased 8.8 mm Hg (-14.2, -3.4, p=0.002). Compared with controls, intervention patients at follow-up reported fewer depressive symptoms (p=0.004), fewer medication problems (p<0.0001), better general health (p<0.0001), and greater satisfaction with care (p≤0.004). Automated telephone care management plus home BP monitors can improve outcomes for hypertensive patients in LMICs. A cloud computing model within regional telecommunication centers could make these services available in areas with limited infrastructure for patient-focused informatics support.

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