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Regensburg, Germany

Wang Y.,Amgen Inc. | Jiao X.,Amgen Inc. | Kayser F.,Amgen Inc. | Liu J.,Amgen Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is a G-protein coupled receptor for which only short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported as endogenous ligands. We describe the discovery and optimization of phenylacetamides as allosteric agonists of FFA2. These novel ligands can suppress adipocyte lipolysis in vitro and reduce plasma FFA levels in vivo, suggesting that these allosteric modulators can serve as pharmacological tools for exploring the potential function of FFA2 in various disease conditions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ertongur-Fauth T.,BRAIN AG | Hochheimer A.,BRAIN AG | Hochheimer A.,Amgen Research GmbH | Buescher J.M.,BRAIN AG | Krohn M.,BRAIN AG
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2014

Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca2+-activated Cl- permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl- secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Laszlo G.S.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Gudgeon C.J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Harrington K.H.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Dell'Aringa J.,Amgen | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

CD33 is a valid target for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but has proven challenging for antibody-drug conjugates. Herein, we investigated the cellular determinants for the activity of the novel CD33/CD3-directed bispecific T-cell engager antibody, AMG 330. In the presence of T cells, AMG 330 was highly active against human AML cell lines and primary AML cells in a dose- and effector to target cell ratio-dependent manner. Using cell lines engineered to express wild-type CD33 at increased levels, we found a quantitative relationship between AMG 330 cytotoxicity and CD33 expression; in contrast, AMG 330 cytotoxicity was neither affected by common CD33 single nucleotide polymorphisms nor expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, P-glycoprotein or breast cancer resistance protein. Unlike bivalent CD33 antibodies, AMG 330 did not reduce surface CD33 expression. The epigenetic modifier drugs, panobinostat and azacitidine, increased CD33 expression in some cell lines and augmented AMG 330-induced cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate that AMG 330 has potent CD33-dependent cytolytic activity in vitro, which can be further enhanced with other clinically available therapeutics. As it neither modulates CD33 expression nor is affected by ABC transporter activity, AMG 330 is highly promising for clinical exploration as it may overcome some limitations of previous CD33-targeted agents. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Swaminath G.,Amgen Inc. | Jaeckel P.,Amgen Research GmbH | Guo Q.,Amgen Inc. | Cardozo M.,Amgen Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

FFA2 (GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, and propionate. FFA2 is predominantly expressed in islets, a subset of immune cells, adipocytes, and the gastrointestinal tract which suggest a possible role in inflammatory and metabolic conditions. We have previously described the identification and characterization of novel phenylacetamides as allosteric agonists of FFA2. In the current study, we have investigated the molecular determinants contributing to receptor activation with the endogenous and synthetic ligands as well as allosteric interactions between these two sites. The mutational analysis revealed previously unidentified sites that may allosterically regulate orthosteric ligand's function as well as residues potentially important for the interactions between orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Fox B.M.,Amgen Inc. | Natero R.,Amgen Inc. | Richard K.,Amgen Inc. | Connors R.,Amgen Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

We discovered novel pyrrolidine MCHR1 antagonist 1 possessing moderate potency. Profiling of pyrrolidine 1 demonstrated that it was an inhibitor of the hERG channel. Investigation of the structure-activity relationship of this class of pyrrolidines allowed us to optimize the MCHR1 potency and decrease the hERG inhibition. Increasing the acidity of the amide proton by converting the benzamide in lead 1 to an anilide provided single digit nanomolar MCHR1 antagonists while replacing the dimethoxyphenyl ring of 1 with alkyl groups possessing increased polarity dramatically reduced the hERG inhibition. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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