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Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Zanuncio J.C.,Federal University of Vicosa | Vinha G.L.,Federal University of Vicosa | Ribeiro R.C.,Federal University of Vicosa | Fernandes B.V.,Vallourec and Mannesmann Florestal Ltda | And 2 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is a pest of Eucalyptus species (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) in Brazil. The pre-pupa stage of this species is present in the soil surrounding infested trees for up to 6 mo during the dry season and can be collected and stored in large numbers. The potential use of P. denticulata pupae as an alternative host for rearing the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was tested in the laboratory. Up to 24-h-old P. denticulata pupae (787.40 ± 78.29 mg) were individually exposed to twenty 72-h-old P. elaeisis females for 48 h. These exposed pre-pupae were individually transferred to a glass tube for the emergence either of parasitoid progeny or of the adult lepidopteran. The parasitism and emergence rates of P. elaeisis from P. denticulata pupae were 100 and 90%, respectively. The life cycle (egg to adult) was 22.22 ± 0.49 days, and the number of progeny of this parasitoid was 734.55 ± 54.56 per host. We concluded that this generalist parasitoid could be mass reared on P. denticulata pupae and released as part of an integrated program to manage lepidopteran pests in eucalyptus plantations. © 2015, BioOne. All rights reserved. Source

Zanuncio J.C.,Federal University of Vicosa | Tavares W.S.,Federal University of Vicosa | Fernandes B.V.,Vallourec and Mannesmann Florestal Ltda | Wilcken C.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Zanuncio T.V.,Federal University of Vicosa
Ekoloji | Year: 2014

The Asopinae predators of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) pests in Brazil include Brontocoris tabidus, Podisus distinctus, Podisus nigrispinus, and Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). These insects feed on the larvae and pupae of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera defoliators. Asopinae predators are reared in the laboratory in wooden cages with wood screens on the upper and lateral sides and the front closed with a glass door, whereas, in the field they are raised in organza bags with branches of Eucalyptus spp. or Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae). An alternative prey, such as Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), or Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae, or the natural prey Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Thyrinteina arnobia and Thyrinteina leucocerae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) caterpillars may be provided to the nymphs of predators in cages and/or rearing bags. Vallourec & Mannesmann Forest Ltda. has two laboratories to mass rear M. domestica to produce annually 300,000 individuals of P. nigrispinus which are released with or without pests in the field. In the first case, predators are released after detection of the pest by a monitoring process, which is the first major step in integrated pest management (IPM). This predator is efficient when the pest population level is below the economic injury level, i.e., nine caterpillars/100 leaves of Eucalyptus spp. Releasing are made in outbreaks every 10 m and the population increase of this predator can control pests. Podisus nigrispinus usually prey on 4-5 first and second instars larvae or 2-3 fourth and fifth instar caterpillars per day. Asopinae predators are reared and released in the field to control pests in the Eucalyptus spp. plantations of the Vallourec & Mannesmann Forest Ltda. in Brazil. Source

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