Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry

Tashkent, Uzbekistan
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Gotor E.,Bioversity International | Bellon M.R.,Bioversity International | Turdieva M.,Bioversity International | Baymetov K.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | And 6 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2017

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of a set of interventions related to on-farm/in situ conservation and use of fruit species (cultivated and wild) on farmers’ livelihoods and species diversity in Central Asia. Specifically, a difference-in-differences propensity score matching is used to evaluate the outcome of a development research program in Uzbekistan between 2005 and 2010. Species crop diversity maintained by farmers before and after the project increased as a result of the interventions, showing the efficacy of the interventions promoted by the projects in terms of conservation. Furthermore, innovations provided by the program increased both household propensity of marketing and self-consumption of target fruit. However, the program’s interventions did not seem to impact significantly any of the indicators related to household livelihoods. The short time elapsed between the end of the project and the impact assessment may be too brief to capture any observable impact on livelihoods. © 2017 The Author(s)

Sharma R.C.,ICARDA | Rajaram S.,ICARDA | Alikulov S.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Ziyaev Z.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | And 13 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

High grain yield and resistance to stripe (yellow) rust are the most important traits for successful adoption of winter wheat varieties in Central and West Asia. This study was conducted to determine the stripe rust response and agronomic performance of a set of breeding lines recently developed by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP). Replicated field studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 38 experimental lines, one regional check (Konya) and one local check. Stripe rust scores were recorded at Karshi, Uzbekistan, and Karaj and Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Grain yield was recorded at two sites each in Uzbekistan (Karshi and Kibray) and Iran (Karaj and Mashhad) and one site in Turkey (Eskisehir). The test lines showed variation for stripe rust severity, grain yield, 1,000-kernel weight, days to heading and plant height. Several stripe rust resistant genotypes were either higher yielding or equal to the local checks at different sites. Based on stripe rust resistance and yield performance in 2010, a set of 16 genotypes was selected and evaluated in 2011. All 16 were resistant at Almaty, Kazakhstan, and Dushanbe, Tajikistan, in 2011, whereas 9 of the 16 were resistant at Terter, Azerbaijan. The genotypes 'TCI-02-138, 'Solh', 'CMSS97M00541S', 'TCI -2-88(A)' and 'TCI-02-88(C)' were consistently resistant to stripe across all sites in both years. Several lines showed high grain yields and superior agronomic performance across four sites in Uzbekistan and one site in Tajikistan. One genotype has been released in Uzbekistan and another in Tajikistan. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Khazratkulova S.,Kashkadarya Research Institute of Grain Breeding and Seed Production | Sharma R.C.,ICARDA | Amanov A.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Ziyadullaev Z.,Kashkadarya Research Institute of Grain Breeding and Seed Production | And 4 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2015

High grain yield and improved quality determine the commercial success of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in Central Asia. This study was conducted to determine the effect of environment on grain yield, 1000-kernel weight (TKW), test weight (TWT), protein, and gluten content, and to identify superior wheat genotypes for yield and quality. Thirty winter wheat genotypes were evaluated in 3 years (2010-2012) over multiple locations. A genotype and genotype × environment interaction biplot analysis was used to determine the superior genotypes. There were significant effects of environment and genotype × environment interaction on yield and quality traits. The 30 wheat genotypes showed variations for grain yield (3.7-5.6 t ha-1), TKW (33.6-42.4 g), TWT (753-797 g/L), protein (13.3%-14.8%), and gluten (27.2%-29.5%) content. There was a significant positive correlation between grain yield and TKW in three out of seven environments. There was no correlation of grain yield with TWT, protein, and gluten content with one exception. There were different sets of five most superior genotypes for individual traits. However, certain genotypes were superior based on grain yield and quality traits. Gozgon, Elomon, ID800994.W/Vee//Lagos-12, Jaikhun, and Kroshka were the five most superior genotypes for four quality traits. Elomon, Gozgon, Jaikhun, ID800994.W/Vee//Lagos-12, and Kiriya were the five most superior genotypes based on grain yield, TKW, TWT, protein, and gluten content. This study demonstrates success in wheat breeding for combined high yield and improved quality in winter wheat. This study provides information on the combined stability of high yield and improved quality of the internationally important winter wheat genotypes. Therefore, the results of this study could be valuable for national and international winter wheat breeding programs to develop new varieties with high stable grain yield and quality. © TÜBİTAK.

Marrano A.,Research and Innovation Center | Grzeskowiak L.,Research and Innovation Center | Moreno Sanz P.,Research and Innovation Center | Lorenzi S.,Research and Innovation Center | And 6 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2015

The mountainous region between the Caucasus and China is considered the center of diversity for many temperate fruit crops. Also the transitional types of grapes, including wild forms of the subsp. Vitis sylvestris, cultivated landraces and ancient local varieties, were once common in this region. Despite Central Asia is considered a focal region of the world regarding grapevine development, limited information about the extent and distribution of grapevine genetic variation is available. Here we report the first assessment of genetic diversity, relationships and structure of 80 grapevine cultivars and 21 V. sylvestris accessions originated from the regions of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. We expanded the coverage of this survey to include a set of 53 traditional Georgian varieties and homologous SSR genotypes of 107 cultivars representing four V. vinifera ancestral subpopulations. This allowed us to evaluate the contribution of the Central Asian grapevine germplasm to diversification of the cultivated grapevine gene pool.

Hazratkulova S.,Kashkadarya Research Institute of Grain Breeding and Seed Production | Sharma R.C.,ICARDA | Alikulov S.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Islomov S.,Kashkadarya Research Institute of Grain Breeding and Seed Production | And 5 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a measure of leaf greenness (chlorophyll content), is considered to be correlated with crop productivity. This study was conducted to examine genotypic variations for NDVI at different growth stages and its relationship to yield in winter wheat under terminal heat stress. Thirty winter wheat genotypes were evaluated at two locations in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 in Uzbekistan. The NDVI was recorded at booting, heading, milk and dough stages. The wheat genotypes differed significantly for NDVI at each stage. Grain yield ranged from 3.9 to 6.1 t/ha. Wheat genotypes differed in per cent decline in NDVI from booting to dough stage. However, several high-yielding genotypes maintained higher NDVI than low-yielding genotypes when heat stress was evident. The findings suggest change in NDVI during heat stress could be a measure of tolerance. The positive correlation of NDVI with grain yield suggests that it could be used as an indirect selection criterion for identifying physiologically superior, high-yielding wheat lines under terminal heat stress. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ziyaev Z.M.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Sharma R.C.,ICARDA Central Asia and the Caucasus Regional Program | Nazari K.,Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program | Morgounov A.I.,CIMMYT | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Wheat is the most important cereal in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia). Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is considered the most important disease of wheat in Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC). Although stripe rust has been present in the region for a long time, it has become a serious constraint to wheat production in the past 10 years. This is reflected by the occurrence of five epidemics of stripe rust in the CAC region since 1999, the most recent in 2010. Several wheat varieties occupying substantial areas are either susceptible to stripe rust or possess a low level of resistance. Information on the stripe rust pathogen in terms of prevalent races and epidemiology is not readily available. Furthermore, there is an insufficient understanding of effective stripe rust resistance genes in the region, and little is known about the resistance genes present in the commercial varieties and advanced breeding lines. The deployment of resistant varieties is further complicated by putative changes in virulence in the pathogen population in different parts of the CAC. Twenty four out of 49 improved wheat lines received through international nurseries or other exchange programs showed high levels of resistance to stripe rust to local pathogen populations in 2009. Fifteen of the 24 stripe rust resistant lines also possessed resistance to powdery mildew. It is anticipated that this germplasm will play an important role in developing stripe rust resistant wheat varieties either through direct adoption or using them as parents in breeding programs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sharma R.C.,ICARDA | Nazari K.,Rust Research Laboratory | Amanov A.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Ziyaev Z.,Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry | Jalilov A.U.,Farming Research Institute
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2016

Stripe rust of winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) causes substantial grain yield loss in Central Asia. This study involved two replicated field experiments undertaken in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 winter wheat crop seasons. The first experiment was conducted to determine grain yield reductions on susceptible winter wheat cultivars using single and two sprays of fungicide at Zadoks growth stages Z61–Z69 in two farmers’ fields in Tajikistan and one farmer's field in Uzbekistan. In the second experiment, four different fungicides at two concentrations were evaluated at Zadoks growth stage Z69. These included three products from BASF – Opus (0.5 l/ha and 1.0 l/ha), Platoon (0.5 l/ha and 1.0 l/ha) and Opera (0.75 l/ha and 1.5 l/ha) – and locally used fungicide Titul 390 (0.5 l/ha and 1.0 l/ha). One and two sprays of fungicides did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in increasing grain yield. Stripe rust reduced grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (TKW) from 24 to 39% and from 16 to 24%, respectively. The benefits from the two concentrations of the same fungicide did not consistently resulted in significantly higher grain yield, suggesting that the lower concentrations could be more cost effective. Our study provides important information about the selection of fungicides, spray concentrations and number of spray to control stripe rust and increase grain yield. The findings could play an important role in developing stripe rust management approaches such as fungicide rotation and strategic fungicide applications in Central Asian countries. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Phytopathology Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH

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