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Piwowar-Manning E.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Tustin N.B.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Sikateyo P.,CIDRZ | Kamwendo D.,UNC Project Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care | Year: 2010

The sensitivity and specificity of 3 rapid HIV antibody tests were assessed at 5 clinical trial sites in Africa and 1 site in the United States using a minimum of 100 HIV antibody positive samples and 100 HIV antibody negative samples at each site. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the OraSure OraQuick, Abbott Determine, and Trinity Unigold tests were 99.3%, 99.8%, and 98.5%, respectively, and 99.3%, 99.4%, and 99.5%, respectively. There were no instances at any site in which false-negative or false-positive results were obtained for the same sample on more than 1 rapid test kit. The results of this study provide assurance that for these diverse sites in Africa, the accuracy of these kits is quite good. Given the excellent accuracy, relatively fast turnaround time, and minimal infrastructure required, these rapid tests for HIV antibody provide a very attractive and accurate testing format. © The Author(s) 2010. Source


Beversluis D.,Case Western Reserve University | Musoke R.,Case Western Reserve University | Mandima P.,UZ UCSF Collaborative Research Programme in Womens Health | Nyamapfeni P.,UZ UCSF Collaborative Research Programme in Womens Health | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2012

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 306 HIV-1-infected women, followed from seroconversion for median 6.4 years in Uganda (UG) and Zimbabwe (ZM) to describe the incidence of major clinical outcomes (MCOs), defined as World Health Organization stage 4 conditions and any tuberculosis (TB). In Uganda, 19 MCOs occurred in 13 participants at median 4.6 years and a median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm 3. In Zimbabwe, 29 MCOs occurred in 27 participants at median 4.0 years (P, 0.001 versus UG) and median CD4 count of 219 cells/mm 3 (P = 0.83 versus UG). MCO incidence was not statistically different (UG: 2.82 cases/100 person-years versus ZM: 2.45; P = 0.64) except for TB (UG: 0.59 versus ZM: 2.02 cases/100 person-years; P = 0.02). This significant difference in TB incidence is primarily due to a TB screening and isoniazid prevention therapy programme that was implemented in Uganda, but not in Zimbabwe, highlighting the importance of integrated TB screening and treatment within HIV programmes. Source


Gomani P.,UZ UCSF Collaborative Research Programme in Womens Health | Matubu A.T.,UZ UCSF Collaborative Research Programme in Womens Health | Mujuru H.A.,University of Zimbabwe | Munjoma M.W.,UZ UCSF Collaborative Research Programme in Womens Health | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2015

Background: Reference intervals are used as an aid in the interpretation of laboratory results. Most developing countries do not have reference intervals specific to adolescents. This study was aimed at establishing hematological and biochemical reference intervals for adolescents aged ≥ 12 years to < 18 years. Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted using the multistage sampling technique. Participants were enrolled from the UZ-UCSF research study catchment areas of Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. Samples were transported for analysis at the UZ-UCSF Central Laboratory under recommended conditions. The data analysis presented in this paper is for 302 adolescents aged ≥ 12 to < 18. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to estimate the 95% reference limits for the hematological and biochemical parameters, with the lower limit defined as the 2.5 percentile and the upper limit defined as the 97.5 percentile of the distribution. Results: A total of 302 adolescents were included. Results show significant differences between males and females in hematological parameters except platelets, eosinophils, basophils, and red cell distribution width. The biochemical parameters which showed significant differences between males and females were phosphate, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, and lipase. Conclusions: Hematological indices and liver function tests differ significantly by gender and this should be considered when defining normal intervals. Source

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