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Hagberg K.W.,Boston University | Taylor A.,Uxbridge Business Park | Hernandez R.K.,Amgen Inc. | Jick S.,Boston University
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background: Bone is a frequent site for metastases among women with breast cancer. We conducted a study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), with linkage to the National Cancer Registry (NCR) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), to estimate the incidence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer in the United Kingdom. Methods: We identified all women in the GPRD aged 20-99 with a first-time diagnosis of breast cancer between 2000 and 2006. To address potential underreporting, we developed and validated an algorithm to serve as a proxy for bone metastases. Bone metastases were defined as (1) a bone cancer diagnosis code on the same day or following breast cancer diagnosis date, or (2) another metastasis code plus codes consistent with bone metastases diagnosis or treatment using the algorithm. We sent questionnaires to a sample of general practitioners to validate these definitions. Results: We included 13,207 breast cancer patients (median age at diagnosis of 61 years) who contributed 70,885 person-years of follow-up. The majority of patients had stage 1 or 2 breast cancer (90.4%), and 2.6% had metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis. We identified 788 women (6.0%) with bone metastases after a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Questionnaire results validated the diagnosis of bone metastases in 88% of patients with a bone cancer code and for 70% identified with the algorithm. Conclusion: This is the first time the GPRD has been linked to HES and NCR to study the epidemiology of bone metastases, adding important information on the burden of bone metastasis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Harries M.,Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Taylor A.,Uxbridge Business Park | Holmberg L.,Kings College London | Agbaje O.,Kings College London | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background: Bone is the most common metastatic site associated with breast cancer. Using a database of women with breast cancer treated at Guy's Hospital, London 1976-2006 and followed until end 2010, we determined incidence of and survival after bone metastases. Methods: We calculated cumulative incidence of bone metastases considering death without prior bone metastases as a competing risk. Risk of bone metastases was modelled through Cox-regression. Survival after bone metastases diagnosis was calculated using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Of the 7064 women, 589 (22%) developed bone metastases during 8.4 years (mean). Incidence of bone metastases was significantly higher in younger women, tumour size >5. cm, higher tumour grade, lobular carcinoma and ≥four positive nodes, but was not affected by hormone receptor status. Median survival after bone metastases diagnosis was 2.3 years in women with bone-only metastases compared with <1 year in women with visceral and bone metastases. There was a trend for decreased survival for patients who developed visceral metastases early, and proportionately fewer patients in this group. Interpretation: Incidence of bone metastases has decreased but bone metastases remain a highly relevant clinical problem due to the large number of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Langeberg W.J.,Amgen Inc. | Schoonen W.M.,Uxbridge Business Park | Eisen M.,Amgen Inc. | Gamelin L.,Amgen Inc. | Stryker S.,Amgen Inc.
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2016

This meta-analysis describes the incidence rate of arterial and venous thromboembolism (ATE and VTE) in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and the relative risk of ATE and VTE in patients with ITP and comparable populations without ITP. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for observational studies reporting incidence rates of ATE and VTE in populations with and without ITP between 1996 and 2013 [follow-up completed before thrombopoietin receptor (TPOr) agonists were commercially available]. Three large, population-based studies were identified from Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The incidence of ATE per 100 patient-years among patients with ITP ranged from 1.0 to 2.8, and among populations without ITP ranged from 0.7 to 1.8; the summary relative risk adjusted for matching factors (aRR) was 1.5 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 1.8]. The incidence of VTE per 100 patient-years among patients with ITP ranged from 0.4 to 0.7, and among populations without ITP ranged from 0.1 to 0.4; the summary aRR (95 % CI) was 1.9 (1.4, 2.7). The risk of ATE and VTE among patients with ITP, based on evidence from three large, population-based observational studies, should be considered when evaluating the risk of thromboembolism attributed to ITP treatments, such as TPOr agonists. © 2016, The Japanese Society of Hematology. Source

Katz A.J.,Amgen Inc. | Chia V.M.,Amgen Inc. | Schoonen W.M.,Uxbridge Business Park | Kelsh M.A.,Amgen Inc.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2015

Purpose: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare hematological malignancy. With the recent introduction of a classification system for hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms, more comprehensive assessment of ALL epidemiology is now possible. In this study, we describe recent international incidence of ALL and project the annual number of diagnoses to 2025. We also estimate relative survival and average potential years of life lost (AYLL) to assess the societal burden of ALL. Methods: Age-specific incidence data for ALL from select cancer registries in different geographies were obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer’s Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Database. Country-specific age-standardized rates were calculated to allow for direct comparisons between countries. ALL-specific mortality and relative survival data were only available from the United States (US) National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program; mortality rates were estimated for other countries. Results: The age-standardized incidence rate of ALL during 2003–2007 ranged from 1.08 to 2.12 per 100,000 person-years in selected countries. Incidence was generally higher in the Americas and Oceania and lower in Asia and Eastern Europe. In most countries, the incidence rate of ALL in children was approximately four times that in adults. Survival was particularly poor among adults. In selected countries, the estimated AYLL ranged from 30 to 48 years for all ages and from 23 to 39 years for adults. Conclusions: Although a rare disease, ALL presents a significant public health burden given poor survival outcomes among adults, AYLL, and its importance as the most common pediatric cancer. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Dowswell G.,University of Birmingham | Ryan A.,University of Birmingham | Taylor A.,Uxbridge Business Park | Daley A.,University of Birmingham | And 7 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients' preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial.Methods: Patients aged 60-74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared.Results: Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population.Conclusions: This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to individuals, the lack of knowledge about the aetiology of colon cancer and the lack of motivation to change behaviour are critical factors.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03320951. © 2012 Dowswell et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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