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Milwaukee, WI, United States

Wang J.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Xu K.,National University of Defense Technology | Xu K.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Liu L.,University of Science and Technology of China | And 4 more authors.
Computer Graphics Forum

The emergence of laser/LiDAR sensors, reliable multi-view stereo techniques and more recently consumer depth cameras have brought point clouds to the forefront as a data format useful for a number of applications. Unfortunately, the point data from those channels often incur imperfection, frequently contaminated with severe outliers and noise. This paper presents a robust consolidation algorithm for low-quality point data from outdoor scenes, which essentially consists of two steps: 1) outliers filtering and 2) noise smoothing. We first design a connectivity-based scheme to evaluate outlierness and thereby detect sparse outliers. Meanwhile, a clustering method is used to further remove small dense outliers. Both outlier removal methods are insensitive to the choice of the neighborhood size and the levels of outliers. Subsequently, we propose a novel approach to estimate normals for noisy points based on robust partial rankings, which is the basis of noise smoothing. Accordingly, a fast approach is exploited to smooth noise, while preserving sharp features. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the point clouds from a variety of outdoor scenes. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Mathematical models are often held to be valuable, if not necessary, for theories and explanations in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The present review suggests that mathematical models primarily derived from the observation of functional relations do indeed contribute to the scientific value of theories and explanations, even though the final form of the models appears to be highly abstract. However, mathematical models not primarily so derived risk being essentialist in character, based on a particular view of formal causation. Such models invite less effective and frequently mentalistic theories and explanations of behavior. Models may be evaluated in terms of both (a) the verbal processes responsible for their origin and development and (b) the prediction and control engendered by the theories and explanations that incorporate the models, however indirect or abstract that prediction and control may be. Overall, the present review suggests that technological application and theoretical contemplation may be usefully viewed as continuous and overlapping forms of scientific activity, rather than dichotomous and mutually exclusive. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Patch S.K.,UW Milwaukee | Rao N.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Kelly H.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Jacobsohn K.,Medical College of Wisconsin | See W.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Physiological Measurement

The specific heat capacity of tissue is a critical parameter for thermal therapies that act over a long period of time. It is also critical for thermoacoustic signal generation. We present ex vivo measurements of specific heat capacity performed by a dual-pin probe with tight temperature control of the specimen. One 30 mm × 1.28 mm probe heats steadily for 30 s, while another measurement probe measures temperatures 6 mm away from the center of the heater probe. Specific heat values ranging from 2.9 to 4 J cm -3 °C -1 were measured on 20 lobes from ten fresh prostate specimens with varying degrees of cancerous involvement as confirmed by histology. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Tysoe W.T.,UW Milwaukee
ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts

Palladium provides the basis for a number of selective catalysts, notably for the hydrogenation of alkene and alkynes and for the synthesis of vinyl acetate monomers (VAM) from the reaction of ethylene, acetic acid and oxygen, with selectivities approaching 80%. Much of the work in these areas was pioneered by the Lambert group. Although the basic Horuiti-Polanyi pathway for alkene and hydrogenation, in which hydrogen dissociates on the metal surface and adds to the carbon-carbon double bond in a step-wise fashion, was proposed many years ago, surface science strategies have revealed that the detailed reaction pathway is more complex. The discussion will be extended to examining the pathway for VAM synthesis, where it is shown that reaction proceeds via an initial coupling between ethylene and acetate species to form an acetoxyethyl intermediate, which decomposes via a rate-liming beta-hydride elimination pathway to form VAM. Source

Vinyl acetate is formed selectively on supported palladium and palladium-gold alloy catalysts from ethylene, acetic acid and oxygen, were the reaction selectivity on the alloy is improved compared to pure palladium. The pathway for the synthesis of vinyl acetate is explored on a Pd(111) single crystal by monitoring the nature of the surface by infrared spectroscopy. Vinyl acetate is synthesized on Pd(111) by reaction between ethylene and an acetate species to form an acetoxyethyl intermediate, which decomposes via a β-hydride elimination reaction to form vinyl acetate, the so-called Samanos pathway. VAM is formed on a Au/Pd(111) alloy via a similar pathway, but alloy formation appears to result in a change in the rate-limiting step and an acceleration in reaction rate. Source

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